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Sciencenow www.sciencenow.org Daily News Coverage What, Me Worry WWw.scienceonline.org Carefree people may compromise their health by delaying medical treatment. Pulsars Aplenty Astronomers find the densest concentration of rapidly whirling neutron stars. Astronomers verify that ripples from the big bang control the distribution of galaxies. Preparing for International Polar Year. science's next wave www.nextwave.org Career Resources for Young Scientists Canada Science on Ice Canada Readies for...

How Obesity Causes Diabetes Not a Tall Tale

The epidemic of obesity-associated diabetes is a major crisis in modern societies, in which food is plentiful and exercise is optional. The biological basis of this problem has been explored from evolutionary and mechanistic perspectives. Evolutionary theories, focusing on the potential survival advantages of thrifty genes that are now maladaptive, are of great interest but are inherently speculative and difficult to prove. Mechanistic studies have revealed numerous fat-derived molecules and a...

Information For Contributors

See pages 135 and 136 of the 7 January 2005 issue or access editor-in-chief Donald Kennedy executive editor Monica M. Bradford R. Brooks Hanson, Katrina L. Keiner Colin Norman Editorial supervisory senior editors Barbara Jasny, Phillip D. Szuromi senior editor perspectives Orla Smith senior editors Gilbert J. Chin, Pamela J. Hines, Paula A. Kiberstis Boston , Beverly A. Purnell, L. Bryan Ray, Guy Riddihough Manila , Linda R. Rowan, David Voss associate editors Lisa D. Chong, Marc S. Lavine, H....

HCR

Plays a causal role in the development of the differences between the LCR and HCR rats Fig. 2 . PGC-1a, particularly because it interacts with PPAR-g, seems to be centrally positioned for influencing both energy metabolism and the progression of complex diseases. PGC-1a is a transcriptional coactivator involved in energy transfer pathways and mitochondrial biogenesis and permits PPAR-g to interact with many transcription factors 14 . PPAR-g, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, has been...

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Type Diabetes

Mitochondrial Calcium Channels

Shulman2 Maintenance of normal blood glucose levels depends on a complex interplay between the insulin responsiveness of skeletal muscle and liver and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic cells. Defects in the former are responsible for insulin resistance, and defects in the latter are responsible for progression to hyperglycemia. Emerging evidence supports the potentially unifying hypothesis that both of these prominent features of type 2...

Genetic Factors in Type Diabetes The End of the Beginning

The intensive search for genetic variants that predispose to type 2 diabetes was launched with optimism, but progress has been slower than was hoped. Even so, major advances have been made in the understanding of monogenic forms of the disease which together represent a substantial health burden, and a few common gene variants that influence susceptibility have now been unequivocally identified. Armed with a better understanding of the tools needed to detect such genes, it seems inevitable that...

Diabetes Obesity and the Brain

Hypothalamus Energy Homeostasis Mc4r

Schwartz12 and Daniel Porte Jr. Recent evidence suggests a key role for the brain in the control of both body fat content and glucose metabolism. Neuronal systems that regulate energy intake, energy expenditure, and endogenous glucose production sense and respond to input from hormonal and nutrient-related signals that convey information regarding both body energy stores and current energy availability. In response to this input, adaptive changes occur that promote energy homeostasis...