Type 1 Diabetes References

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21. Concannon P, Gogolin-Ewens KJ, Hinds DA, et al. A second-generation screen of the human genome for susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Nat Genet 1998;19:292-296.

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24. Pugliese A. Unraveling the genetics of insulin-dependent type 1A diabetes: the search must go on. Diabetes Rev 1999;7:39-54.

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27. Awata T, Kuzuya T, Matsuda A, Iwamoto Y, Kanazawa Y. Genetic analysis of HLA class II alleles and susceptibility to type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Japanese subjects. Diabetologia 1992;35:419-424.

28. Huang HS, Peng JT, She JY, et al. HLA-encoded susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is determined by DR and DQ genes as well as their linkage disequilibria in a Chinese population. Hum Immunol 1995;44:210-219.

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30. Dorman JS, LaPorte RE, Stone RA, et al. Worldwide differences in the incidence of type 1 diabetes are associated with amino acid variation at position 57 of the HLA-DQ P chain. PNAS 1990;87:7370-7374.

31. Bennett ST, Wilson AJ, Esposito L, et al. Insulin VNTR allele-specific effect in type 1 diabetes depends on identity of untransmitted paternal allele. Nat Genet 1997;17:350-352.

32. Pugliese A, Zeller M, Fernandez A Jr, et al. The insulin gene is transcribed in human thymus and transcription levels correlated with allelic variation at the INS VNTR-IDDM 2 susceptibility locus for type 1 diabetes. Nat Genet 1997;15:293-297.

33. Undlien DE, Hamaguchi K, Kimura A, et al. Type 1 diabetes susceptibility associated with polymorphism in the insulin gene region: a study of blacks, Caucasians, and orientials. Diabetologia 1994;37:745-749.

34. Kawaguchi Y, Ikegami H, Shen GO. Insulin gene region contributes to genetic susceptibility to, but may not to, low incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Japanese. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997;233:283-287.

35. Van der Auwera B, Schuit F, Lyaruu I, et al. Genetic susceptibility for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Caucasians revisited: the importance of diabetes registries in disclosing interactions between HLA-DQ and insulin gene-linked risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:2567-2573.

36. Metcalf KA, Hitman GA, Fennessy MJ, et al. In Finland insulin gene region encoded susceptibility to IDDM exerts maximum effect when there is low HLA-DR associated risk. Diabetologia 1995;38:1223-1229.

37. Trucco M. To be or not to be ASP57: that is the question. Diabetes Care 1992;15:705-715.

38. Bach JF. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as an autoimmune disease. Endocrinol Rev 1994;15:516-542.

39. Schranz DB, Lernmark A. Immunology in diabetes: an update. Diabetes Metab Rev 1998;14:3-29.

40. Libman M, Pietropaolo M, Trucco M, Dorman JS, LaPorte RE, Becker D. Islet cell autoimmunity in white and black children and adolescents with IDDM. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1824-1827.

41. Bingley PJ, Bonifacio E, Williams AJK, Genovese S, Bottazzo GF, Gale EAM. Prediction of IDDM in the general population. Diabetes 1997;46:1701-1710.

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44. Dittler J, Seidel D, Schenker M, Ziegler AG. GADIA2-combi determination as first-line screening for improved prediction of type 1 diabetes in relatives. Diabetes 1998;47:592-597.

45. Schatz D, Krischer J, Horne G, et al. Islet cell antibodies predict insulin-dependent diabetes in United States school age children as powerfully as in unaffected relatives. J Clin Invest 1994;93:2403-2407.

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47. Foulis K. The pathology of the endocrine pancreas in type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus. APMIS 1996;104:161-167.

48. von Herrath MG, Holz A, Homann D. Role of viruses in type 1 diabetes. Semin Immunol 1998;10:87-100.

49. Kaufman DL, Erlander MG, Clare-Salzler M, et al. Autoimmunity to two forms of glutamic decarboxylase in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1992;89:283.

50. Hou J, Sid C, Franchi D. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase and P2-C peptides in sera from coxsackie virus B4-infected mice and IDDM patients. Diabetes 1994;43:1260-1266.

51. Lönnrot M, Hyöty H, Knip M, et al. Antibody cross-reactivity induced by the homologous regions in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and 2C protein of coxsackievirus B4. Clin Exp Immunol 1996;104:398-405.

52. Richter W, Mertens T, Schoel B, et al. Sequence homology of the diabetes-associated autoantigen glutamate decarboxylase with coxsackie B4-2C protein and heat shock protein 60 mediates no molecular mimicry of autoantibodies. J Exp Med 1994;180:721-726.

53. Vreugdenhil GR, Batstra MR, Aanstoot HJ, Melchers WJG, Galama JMD. Analysis of antibody responses against coxsackie virus B4 protein 2C and the diabetes autoantigen GAD65. J Med Virol 1999;59:256-261.

54. Atkinson MA, Bowman MA, Campbell L, Darrow BL, Kaufman DL, Maclaren NK. Cellular immunity to a determinant common to glutamate decarboxylase and coxsackie virus in insulin-dependent diabetes. J Clin Invest 1994;94:2125-2129.

55. Schloot NC, Roep BO, Wegmann DR, Yu L, Wang TB, Eisenbarth GS. T-cell reactivity to GAD65 peptide sequences shared with coxsackie virus protein in recent-onset IDDM, post-onset IDDM patients and control subjects. Diabetologia 1997;40:332-338.

56. Juhela S, Hyöty H, Roivainen M, et al. T-cell responses to enterovirus antigens in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2000;49:1308-1313.

57. Jones DB, Crosby I. Proliferative lymphocyte responses to virus antigens homologous to GAD65 in IDDM. Diabetologia 1996;39:1318-1324.

58. D'Alessio DJ. A case-control study of group B coxsackievirus immunoglobulin M antibody prevalence and HLA-DR antigens in newly diagnosed cases of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:1331-1338.

59. Vreugdenhil GR, Geluk A, Ottenhoff THM, Melchers WJG, Roep BO, Galama JMD. Molecular mimicry in diabetes mellitus: the homologous domain in coxsackie B virus protein 2C and islet autoantigen GAD65 is highly conserved in the coxsackie B-like enteroviruses and binds to the diabetes associated HLA-DR3 molecule. Diabetologia 1998;41:40-46.

60. Hyöty H, Hiltunen M, Reuranen A. Decline of mumps antibodies in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic children with a plateau in the rising incidence of type 1 diabetes after introduction of the mumps-measles-rubella vaccine in Finland. Diabetologia 1993;36:1303-1308.

61. Pak CY, McArthur RG, Eun HM, Yoon JW. Association of cytomegalovirus infection with autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Lancet 1988;2:1-4.

62. Nicoletti F, Scalia G, Lunetta M, et al. Correlation between islet cell antibodies and anti-cytomegalovirus IgM and IgG antibodies in healthy first-degree relatives of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1990;55:139-147.

63. Hiltunen M, Hyöty H, Karjalainen J, et al. Serological evaluation of the role of cytomegalovirus in the pathogenesis of IDDM: A prospective study. Diabetologia 1995;38:705-710.

64. Honeyman MC, Coulson BS, Stone NL, et al. Association between rotavirus infection and pancreatic islet autoimmunity in children at risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2000;49:1319-1324.

65. Serreze DV, Ottendorfer EW, Ellis M, Gauntt CJ, Atkinson MA. Acceleration of type 1 diabetes by a coxsackievirus infection requires a preexisting critical mass of autoreactive t-cells in pancreatic islets. Diabetes 2000;49:708-711.

66. McIntosh EDG, Menser M. A fifty-year follow-up of congenital rubella. Lancet 1992;340:414-415.

67. Ou D, Mitchell LA, Metzger DL, Gillam S, Tingle AJ. Cross-reactive rubella virus and glutamic acid decarboxylase (65 and 67) protein determinants recognised by T cells of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 2000;43:750-762.

68. Hyöty H, Hiltunen M, Knip M, et al. A prospective study of the role of coxsackie B and other enterovirus infections in the pathogenesis of IDDM. Diabetes 1995;44:652-657.

69. Dahlquist G, Frisk G, Ivarsson SA, Svanberg L, Forsgren M, Diderholm H. Indications that maternal coxsackie B virus infection during pregnancy is a risk factor for childhood-onset IDDM. Diabetologia 1995;38:1371-1373.

70. Lönnrot M, Korpela K, Knip M, et al. Enterovirus infection as a risk factor for ß-cell autoimmunity in a prospectively observed birth cohort. Diabetes 2000;49:1314-1318.

71. Conrad B, Weldmann E, Trucco G, et al. Evidence for superantigen involvement in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus aetiology. Nature 1994;371:351-355.

72. Conrad B, Weissmahr RN, Böni J, Arcari R, Schüpbach, J, Mach B. A human endogenous retroviral superantigen as candidate autoimmune gene in type 1 diabetes. Cell 1997;90:303-313.

73. Jaeckel E, Heringlake S, Berger D, Brabant G, Hunsmann G, Manns MP. No evidence for association between IDDMK1,2 22, a novel isolated retrovirus, and IDDM. Diabetes 1999;48:209-214.

74. Muir A, Ruan QG, Marron MP, She JX. The IDDMK1,2 22 retrovirus is not detectable in either mRNA or genomic DNA from patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 1999;48:219-222.

75. Donner H, Tönjes RR, VanderAuwera B, et al. The presence or absence of a retroviral long terminal repeat influences the genetic risk for type 1 diabetes conferred by human leukocyte antigen DQ hap-lotypes. J Clin Endo Metab 1999;84:1404-1408.

76. Scott FW. Cow milk and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: is there a relationship? Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:589-591.

77. Akerblom HK, Savilahti E, Savkkonen TT. The case for elimination of cow's milk in early infancy in the prevention of type 1 diabetes: the Finnish experience. Diabetes Metab Rev 1993;9:269-278.

78. Kostraba JN. What can epidemiology tell us about the role of infant diet in the etiology of IDDM? Diabetes Care 1994;17:87-91.

79. Gerstein HC. Cow's milk exposure and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1994;17:13-19.

80. Elliott RB, Martin JM. Dietary protein: a trigger of insulin-dependent diabetes in the BB rat? Dia-betologia 1984;26:297-299.

81. Borch-Johnsen K, Joner G, Mandrup-Poulsen T, et al. Relation between breast-feeding and incidence rates of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1984;2:1083-1086.

82. Norris JM, Scott FW. A meta-analysis of infant diet and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: do biases play a role? Epidemiology 1996;7:87-92.

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84. Füchtenbusch M, Karges W, Standl E, Dosch HM, Ziegler AG. Antibodies to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune disorders. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1997;105:86-91.

85. Cavallo MG, Fava D, Monetini L, Barone F, Pozzilli P. Cell-mediated immune response to ß casein in recent-onset insulin-dependent diabetes: implications for disease pathogenesis. Lancet 1996;348: 926-928.

86. Atkinson MA, Bowman MA, Kao KJ, et al. Lack of immune responsiveness to bovine serum albumin in insulin-dependent diabetes. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1853-1858.

87. Norris JM, Beaty B, Klingensmith G, et al. Lack of association between early exposure to cow's milk protein and ß-cell autoimmunity. JAMA 1996;276:609-614.

88. Couper JJ, Steele C, Beresford S, et al. Lack of association between duration of breast-feeding or introduction of cow's milk and development of islet autoimmunity. Diabetes 1999;48:2145-2149.

89. Virtanen SM, Läärä E, Hyppönen E, et al. Cow's milk consumption, HLA-DQB1 genotype, and type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2000;49:912-917.

90. Paronen J, Klemetti P, Kantele JM, et al. Glutamate decarboxylase-reactive peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with IDDM express gut-specific homing receptor a4 ß7-intergrin. Diabetes 1997;46:583-588.

91. Kolb H, Pozzilli P. Cow's milk and type 1 diabetes: the gut immune system deserves attention. Immunol Today 1999;20:108-110.

92. Harrison LC, Honeyman MC. Cow's milk and type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 1999;48:1501-1507.

93. Vaarala O. Gut and the induction of immune tolerance in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999;15:353-361.

94. Paronen J, Knip M, Savilahti E, et al. Effect of cow's milk exposure and maternal type 1 diabetes on cellular and humoral immunization to dietary insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2000;49:1657-1665.

95. Vaarala O, Knip M, Paronen J, et al. Cow's milk formula feeding induces primary immunization to insulin in infants at genetic risk for type1 diabetes. Diabetes 1999;48:1389-1394.

96. Saukkonen T, Virtanen SM, Karppinen M, et al. Significance of cow's milk protein antibodies as risk factor for childhood IDDM: interactions with dietary cow's milk intake and HLA-DQB1 genotype. Diabetologia 1998;41:72-78.

97. Hagopian WA, Sanjeevi CB, Kockum, I, et al. Glutamate decarboxylase-, insulin-, and islet cell-antibodies and HLA typing to detect diabetes in a general population-based study of swedish children. J Clin Invest 1995;95:1505-1511.

98. DeBlock CEM, DeLeeuw IH, Van Gaal LF, Belgian Diabetes Registry. High prevalence of manifestations of gastric autoimmunity in parietal cell antibody-positive type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:4062-4067.

99. Kostraba JN, Cruickshanks KJ, Lawler-Heavner J, et al. Early exposure to cow's milk and solid foods in infancy, genetic predisposition, and risk of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 1993;42:288-295.

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104. Hart WM, Espinosa C, Rovira J. A simulation model of the cost of the incidence of IDDM in Spain. Diabetologia 1997;40:311-318.

105. The DCCT Study Research Group. Resource utilization and costs of care in the diabetes control and complications trial. Diabetes Care 1995;18:1468-1478.

106. Songer TJ, LaPorte RE, Lave JR, Dorman JS, Becker DJ. Health insurance and the financial impact of IDDM in families with a child with IDDM. Diabetes Care 1997;20:577-584.

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