References

The Big Diabetes Lie

Diabetes Cure Diet

Get Instant Access

1. Eisenbarth GS. Type I diabetes mellitus: a chronic autoimmune disease. N Engl J Med 1986;314:1360-1368.

2. Rossini AA, Mordes JP, Handler ES. Speculation on the etiology of diabetes mellitus. Tumbler hypothesis. Diabetes 1988;37:257-261.

3. Bingley PJ, Christie MR, Bonifacio E, et al. Combined analysis of autoantibodies improves prediction of IDDM in islet cell antibody-positive relatives. Diabetes 1994;43:1304-1310.

4. Verge CF, Gianani R, Kawasaki E, et al. Prediction of type I diabetes mellitus in first degree relatives using a combination of insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase and ICA512bdc/IA-2 autoantibodies. Diabetes 1996;45:926-933.

5. Pietropaolo M, Eisenbarth GS. Autoantibodies in human diabetes. Curr Dir Autoimmun 2001; 4:252-282.

6. Rose NR. Immunologic diagnosis of autoimmuity. In: Leffel, MS, Donnenberg, AD, Rose, NR, eds. Handbook of Immunology. CRC, New York, 1997, vol. 4, pp. 111-123.

7. Warram HH, Krolewski AS, Gottlieb MS, et al. Differences in risk of insulin-dependent diabetes in offspring of diabetic mothers and diabetic fathers. N Engl J Med 1984;311:149-152.

8. Warram JH, Rich SS, Krolewski AS. Epidemiology and genetics of diabetes mellitus. In: Kahn, CR Weir, GC, eds. Joslin's Diabetes Mellitus. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1994;13(12):201.

9. Wagener DK, Sacks JM, LaPorte RE, et al. The Pittsburgh study of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: risk for diabetes among relatives of IDDM. Diabetes 1982;31:136-144.

10. Bleich D, Polak M, Eisenbarth GS, et al. Decreased risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring of mothers who acquire diabetes during adrenarchy. Diabetes 1993;42:1433-1439.

11. Allen C, Palta M, D'Alessio DJ. Incidence and differences in urban-rural seasonal variation of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes in Wisconsin. Diabetologia 1986;29:629-633.

12. Dorman JS, McCarthy BJ, O'Leary AL, et al. Risk factors for insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes in America, 2nd ed. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Washington, DC, 1995, pp. 165-177.

13. Warram JH, Krolewski AS, Kahn CR. Determinanats of IDDM and perinatal mortality in children of diabetic mothers. Diabetes 1988;37:1328-1334.

14. LaPorte RE, Matsushima M, Chang Y-F. Prevalence and incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes in America. 2nd ed. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Washington, DC, 1995, pp. 37-46.

15. Groop LC, Bottazzo GF, Doniach D. Islet cell antibodies identify latent type I diabetes in patients aged 35-75 years at diagnosis. Diabetes 1986;35:237-241.

16. Landin-Olsson M, Karlsson FA, Lernmark A, et al. Islet cell and thyrogastric antibodies in 633 consecutive 15- to 34-yr-old patients in the diabetes incidence study in Sweden. Diabetes 1992;41:1022-1027.

17. Rewers M, Hamman RF. Risk factors for non-insulin dependent diabetes. In: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, ed. Diabetes in America, 2nd ed. National Institutes of Health, Washington, DC, 1995, Vol. 9, pp. 179-220.

18. Tuomi T, Groop LC, Zimmet PZ, et al. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase reveal latent autoimmune diabetes in adults with a non-insulin-dependent onset of diabetes. Diabetes 1993;42:359-362.

19. Zimmet PZ, Shaten BJ, Kuller LH, et al. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase and diabetes mellitus in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:683-690.

20. Turner R, Stratton I, Horton V, et al. UKPDS 25: autoantibodies to islet-cell cytoplasm and glutamic acid decarboxylase for prediction of insulin requirement in type 2 diabetes. Lancet 1997;350:1288-1293.

21. Morel PA, Dorman JS, Todd JA, et al. Aspartic acid at position 57 of the HLA-DQ beta chain protects against type I diabetes: a family study. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85:8111-8115.

22. Trucco M. To be or not to be ASP 57, that is the question. Diabetes Care 1992;15:705-715.

23. Erlich HA, Bugawan TL, Scharf S, et al. HLA-DQß sequence polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to IDDM. Diabetes 1990;39:96-103.

24. Horton V, Stratton I, Bottazzo GF, et al. Genetic heterogeneity of autoimmune diabetes: age of presentation in adults is influenced by HLA DRB1 and DQB1 genotypes (UKPDS 43). Diabetologia 1999;42:608-616.

25. Pietropaolo M, Barinas-Mitchell E, Pietropaolo SL, et al. Evidence of islet cell autoimmunity in elderly patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 2000;49:32-38.

26. Allen C, Palta M, D'Alessio DJ. Risk of diabetes in siblings and other relatives of IDDM subjects. Diabetes 1991;40:831-836.

27. Dahlquist G, Blom L, Tuvemo T, et al. The Swedish childhood diabetes study—results from a nine year case register and a one year case-referent study indicating that type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is associated with both type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and autoimmune disorders. Diabetologia 1989;32:2-6.

28. Dahlquist G, Blom L, Lonnberg G. The Swedish childhood diabetes study—a multivariate analysis of risk determinants for diabetes in different age groups. Diabetologia 1991;34:757-762.

29. Tuomilehto J, Lounamaa R, Tuomilehto-Wolf E, et al. Epidemiology of childhood diabetes mellitus in Finland—background of a nationwide study of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Dia-betologia 1992;35:70-76.

30. Tillil H, Kobberling J. Age-correlated empirical genetic risk estimates for first degree relatives of IDDM patients. Diabetes 1987;36:93-99.

31. Nepom GT. Class II antigens and disease susceptibility. Annu Rev Med 1995;46:17-25.

32. Vadheim CM, Rotter JI, Maclaren NK, et al. Preferential transmission of diabetic alleles within the HLA gene complex. N Engl J Med 1986;315:1314-1318.

33. Strominger JL. Biology of the human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) system and a hypothesis regarding the generation of autoimmune disease. J Clin Invest 1986;77:1411-1415.

34. Lu SSS, Tun RYM, Hawa M, et al. Studies of diabetic twins. Diabetes Metab Rev 1991;7:223-238.

35. Dahlquist G. Environmental risk factors in human type I diabetes—an epidemiological perspective. Diabetes Metab Rev 1995;11:37-46.

36. Luppi P, Zanone MM, Hyoty H, et al. Restricted TCR Vß gene expression and enterovirus infection in type 1 diabetes: a pilot study. Diabetologia 2000;43:1484-1497.

37. Dahl-Jorgensen K, Joner G, Hanssen KF. Relationship between cow's milk consumption and incidence of IDDM in childhood. Diabetes Care 1991;14:1081-1083.

38. Dahlquist G, Ivarsson S, Lindberg B, et al. Maternal enteroviral infection during pregnancy as a risk determinant for childhood insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus—a population based case-control study. Diabetes 1995;44:408-413.

39. Conrad B, Weidmann E, Trucco G, et al. Evidence for superantigen involvment in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus etiology. Nature 1994;371:351-355.

40. Trucco M, LaPorte R. Exposure to superantigens as an immunogenetic explanation of type I diabetes mini-epidemics. J Pediatr Endocrinol 1995;8:3-10.

41. Bingley PJ, Gale EAM. Rising inidence of IDDM in Europe. Diabetes Care 1989;12:289-295.

42. Dorman JS, LaPorte RE, Tajima N, et al. Differential risk factors for death in insulin-dependent diabetic patients by duration of disease. Pediatr Adolesc Endocrinol 1986;15:289-299.

43. Lonnrot M, Korpela K, Knip M, et al. Enterovirus infection as a risk factor for beta-cell autoimmunity in a prospectively observed birth cohort: the Finnish Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Diabetes 2000;49:1314-1318.

44. Conrad B, Trucco M. Superantigens as etiopathogenic factors in the development of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab Rev 1995;10:309-338.

45. Lander ES, Kruglyak L. Genetic dissection of complex traits: guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results. Nat Genet 1995;11:241-247.

46. Verge CF, Vardi P, Babu S, et al. Evidence for oligogenic inheritance of Type 1 diabetes in a large Bedouin Arab family. J Clin Invest 1998;102:1569-1575.

47. Cucca F, Goy JV, Kawaguchi Y, et al. A male-female bias in type 1 diabetes and linkage to chromosome Xp in MHC HLA-DR3-positive patients. Nat Genet 1998;19:301-302.

48. Concannon P, Gogolin-Ewens KJ, Hinds DA, et al. A second-generation screen of the human genome for susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Nat Genet 1998;19:292-296.

49. Tsao BP, Cantor RM, Kalunian KC, et al. Evidence for linkage of a candidate chromosome 1 region to human systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Invest 1997;99:725-731.

50. Brown MA, Pile KD, Kennedy LG, et al. A genome-wide screen for susceptibility candidate loci in ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 1998;41:588-595.

51. Pietropaolo M, Trucco M. Major histocompatibility locus and other genes that determine the risk of development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. In: LeRoith D, Taylor SI, Olefsky JM, eds. Diabetes Mellitus. A Fundamental and Clinical Text. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia; 2000, pp. 399-410.

52. Friday RP, Trucco M, Pietropaolo M. Genetics of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Nutr Metab 1999;12:3-26.

53. Serreze DV, Leiter EH. Genes and cellular requirements for autoimmune diabetes susceptibility in NOD mice. Curr Dir Autoimmun 2001;4:31-67.

54. Atkinson MA, Leiter EH. The NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes: as good as it gets? Nat Med 1999;5:601-604.

55. Grenier DL, Handler ES, Nakano K, et al. Absence of the RT6 T cell subset in diabetes-prone BB/W rats. J Immunol 1986;136:148-151.

56. Powis SH, Mockridge I, Kelly A, et al. Polymorphism in a second ABC transporter gene located within the class II region of the human major histocompatibility complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89(4):1463-1467.

57. Colonna M, Bresnahan M, Bahram S, et al. Alleleic variants of the human putative peptide transporter involved in antigen processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:3932-3936.

58. Germain RN. MHC-Dependent antigen processing and peptide presentation: providing ligands for T lymphocyte activation. Cell 1994;76:287-299.

59. Schwartz BD. The major histocompatibility complex and disease susceptibility. In: Bennett JC, Plum F, eds. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 20th ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1996, pp. 1424-1432.

60. Klein J, Sato A. The HLA system. N Eng J Med 2000;11:782-786.

61. Degli Esposti MA, Leaver LA, Christiansen FT, et al. Ancestral haplotypes: conserved population MHC haplotypes. Hum Immunol 1992;34:242-252.

62. Zhang WJ, Degli Esposti MA, Cobain TJ, et al. Differences in gene copy number carried by different MHC ancestral haplotypes. J Exp Med 1990;171:2101-2114.

63. Termijtelen A, D'Amaro J, van Rood JJ, et al. Linkage disequilibrium in HLA cannot be explained by selective recombination. Tissue Antigens 1995;46:387-390.

64. Faas S, Trucco M. The genes influencing the susceptibility to IDDM in humans. J Endocrinol Invest 1994;17:477-495.

65. Tisch R, McDevitt H. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Cell 1996;85:294-297.

66. Pietropaolo M, Eisenbarth GS. Molecular targets of the autoimmunity of type I diabetes. In: Draznin B, LeRoith D, eds. Molecular Biology of Diabetes. Humana, Totowa, NJ, 1994, pp. 1-33.

67. Bingley PJ, for the ICARUS Group. Interaction of age, islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and first-phase insulin response in predicting risk of progression to IDDM in ICA+ relatives. The ICARUS Data Set. Diabetes 1996;45:1720-1728.

68. She J-X. Susceptibility to type I diabetes: HLA-DQ and DR revisited. Immunol Today 1996;17:323-329.

69. Aitman TJ, Todd JA. Molecular genetics of diabetes mellitus. Bailliere's Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;9:631-656.

70. Owerbach D, Gabbay KH. The search for IDDM susceptibility genes: the next generation. Diabetes 1996;45:544-551.

71. Lipes M, Eienbarth GS. Transgenic mouse models of type I Diabetes. Diabetes 1990;39:879-884.

72. Platz P, Jacobsen BK, Morling N, et al. HLA-D and HLA-DR antigens in genetic analysis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1981;21:1108-1115.

73. Wolf E, Spencer KM, Cudworth AG. The genetic susceptibility to type I (insulin dependent) diabetes: analysis of the HLA-DR association. Diabetologia 1983;24:224-230.

74. Walker A, Cudworth AG. Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic multiplex families: mode of genetic transmissions. Diabetes 1983;33:176-183.

75. Nerup JJ, Platz P, Anderson O, et al. HLA antigens and diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1974;2:864.

76. Cudworth AG, Woodrow JC. Genetic susceptibility in diabetes mellitus: analysis of the HLA association. Lancet 1976;2:846-850.

77. Barbosa J, Chern MM, Reinsmoen N, et al. HLA-Dw antigens in unrelated juvenile, insulin-dependent diabetics. Tissue Antigens 1979;14:426-430.

78. Sachs JA, Cudworth AG, Jaraquemada D, et al. Type I diabetes and the HLA-D locus. Diabetologia 1980;18:41-47.

79. Rudert WA, Trucco M. Rapid detection of sequence variation using polymers of specific digionu-cleotides. Nucleic Acid Res 1992;5:1146.

80. Faas SJ, Menon R, Braun ER, et al. Sequence-specific priming and exonuclease-released fluorescence detection of HLA-DQB1 alleles. Tissue Antigens 1996;48:97-112.

81. Menon R, Rudert WA, Braun ER, et al. Sequence-specific priming exonuclease-released fluorescence assay for a rapid and reliable HLA-A molecular typing. Mol Diagn 1997;2(2):99-111.

82. Todd JA, Bell JI, McDevitt HO. HLA-DQß gene contributes to susceptibility and resistance to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Nature 1987;329:509-604.

83. Khalil I, D'Auriol L, Gobet M, et al. A combination of HLA-DQ beta Asp 57-negative and HLA-DQ Arg 52 confers susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1990;85:1315-1319.

84. Lipton RB, Kocova M, LaPorte RE, et al. Autoimmunity and genetic factors contribute to the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in families: islet cell antibodies and HLA DQ heterodimers. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136:503-512.

85. Gutierrez-Lopez MD, Bertera S, Chantres MT, et al. Susceptibility to type I diabetes in Spanish patients correlates quantitatively with expression of HLA-DQa Arg 52 and HLA-DQa non-Asp 57 alleles. Diabetologia 1992;35:583-588.

86. Erlich HA, Zeidler A, Chang J, et al. HLA class II alleles and susceptibility and resistance to insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Mexican-American families. Nat Genet 1993;3:358-364.

87. Khalil I, Deschamps I, Lepage V, et al. Dose effect of cis- and trans-Encoded HLA-DQalpha/beta het-erodimers in IDDM susceptibility. Diabetes 1992;41:378-384.

88. Dalton TA, Bennet JC. Autoimmune disease and the major histocompatibility complex: therapeutic implications. Am J Med 1992;92:183-188.

89. Owerbach D, Lernmark A, Platz P, et al. HLA-D region beta chain DNA endonuclease fragments differ between HLA-DR identical healthy and insulin dependent diabetic individuals. Nature 1983;303:813-817.

90. Cohen-Haguenaur O, Robbins E, Massart C, et al. A systematic study of HLA class II beta DNA restriction fragments in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985;82:3335-3339.

91. Todd JA, Acha-Orbea H, Bell JI, et al. A molecular basis for MHC class II associated autoimmunity. Science 1988;240:1003-1009.

92. Sheehy MJ, Scharf SJ, Rowe JR, et al. A diabetes susceptible HLA haplotype is best defined by a combination of HLA-DR and DQ alleles. J Clin Invest 1989;83:830-835.

93. LaPorte RE, Fishbein HA, Drash AL, et al. The Pittsburgh IDDM registry. The incidence of IDDM in Allegheny County, PA. Diabetes 1981;30:279-284.

94. National Diabetes Data Group Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. Diabetes 1979;28:1039-1057.

95. Lipton RB, Atchison J, Dorman JS, et al. Genetic, immunological, and metabolic determinants of risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus in families. Diabet Med 1992;9:224-232.

96. The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997;20:1183-1197.

97. Pietropaolo M, Becker DJ, LaPorte RE, et al. Progression to insulin-requiring diabetes in seronegative prediabetic subjects: the role of two HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes. Diabetologia 2002;45:66-76.

98. Thorsby E, R0nningen KS. Role of HLA genes in predisposition to develop insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Med 1992;24:523-531.

99. Thorsby E, Ronningen KS. Particular HLA-DQ molecules play a dominant role in determining susceptibility or resistance to type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1993;36:371-377.

100. Thorsby E. Invited anniversary review: HLA associated diseases. Hum Immunol 1997;53:1-11.

101. Cucca F, Muntoni F, Lampis R, et al. Combination of specific DRB1, DQA1, DQB1 haplotypes are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Sardinia. Hum Immunol 1993;37:85-94.

102. Kockum I, Wassmuth R, Holmberg E, et al. HLA-DQ primarily confers protection and HLA-DR susceptibility in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes studied in population-based affected families and controls. Am J Hum Genet 1993;53:150-167.

103. Kockum I, Dahlquist G, Falorni A, et al. Genetic and immunological findings in patients with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Horm Metab Res 1996;28:344-347.

104. Cucca F, Lampis R, Frau F, et al. The distribution of DR4 haplotypes in Sardinia suggests a primary association of type 1 diabetes with DRB1 and DQB1 loci. Hum Immunol 1995;43:301-308.

105. Penny MA, Jenkins D, Mijovic CH, et al. Susceptibility to IDDM in a Chinese population: role of HLA class II alleles. Diabetes 1992;41:914-919.

106. Awata T, Kuzuya T, Matsuda A, et al. Genetic analysis of HLA class II alleles and susceptibility to type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Japanese subjects. Diabetologia 1992;35:419-424.

107. Huang HS, Peng JT, She JY, et al. HLA-Encoded susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is determined by DR and DQ genes as well as their linkage disequilibrium in a Chinese population. Hum Immunol 1995;44:210-219.

108. Nepom GT, Erlich H. MHC class-II molecules and autoimmunity. Annu Rev Immunol 1991;9:493-525.

109. Tait BD, Drummond BP, Varney MD, et al. HLA-DRB1*0401 is associated with susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus independently of the DQB1 locus. Eur J Immunogenet 1995;22:289-297.

110. Yasunaga S, Kimura A, Hamaguchi H, et al. Different contribution of HLA-DR and DQ genes in susceptibility and resistance to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Tissue Antigens 1996;47:37-48.

111. Sanjeevi CB, Hook P, Landin-Olsson M, et al. DR4 subtypes and their molecular properties in a population-based study of Swedish childhood diabetes. Tissue Antigens 1996;47:275-283.

112. Awata T, Kuzuya T, Matsuda A, et al. High frequency of aspartic acid at position 57 of HLA-DQ ß-chain in Japanese IDDM patients and non-diabetic subjects. Diabetes 1990;39:266-269.

113. Morales P, Martinez-Laso J, Martin-Villa JM, et al. High frequency of the HLA-DRB1*0405(Dw15)-DQw8 haplotype in Spaniards and its relationship to diabetes sus44eptibility. Hum Immunol 1991;32:170-175.

114. Van der Auwera B, Van Waeyenberge C, Schuit F, et al. DRB1*0403 protects against IDDM in Caucasians with the high-risk heterozygous DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302/DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 genotype. Belgian Diabetes Registry. Diabetes 1995;44:527-530.

115. Noble JA, Valdes AM, Thomson G, et al. The HLA class II locus DPB1 can influence susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2000;49:121-125.

116. Thomson G, Robinson WP, Kuhner MK, et al. Genetic heterogeneity, modes of inheritance, and risk estimates for a joint study of Caucasians with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Hum Genet 1988;43:799-816.

117. Thomson G, Robinson WP, Kuhner MK, et al. HLA and insulin gene associations with IDDM. Genet Epidemiol 1989;6:155-160.

118. Horn GT, Bugawan TL, Long CM, et al. Allelic sequence variation of the HLA-DQ loci: relationship to serology and to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus susceptibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85:6012-6016.

119. Baisch JM, Weeks T, Giles R, et al. Analysis of HLA-DQ genotypes and susceptibility in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1836-1841.

120. Sorrentino R, DeGrazia U, Buzzetti R, et al. An explanation for the neutral effect of DR2 on IDDM susceptibility in central Italy. Diabetes 1992;41:904-908.

121. Ronningen KS, Spurkland A, Iwe T, et al. Distribution of HLA-DRB1,-DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles and DQA1-DQB1 genotypes among Norwegian patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Tissue Antigens 1991;37:105-111.

122. Ronningen KS, Spurkland A, Tait BD, et al. HLA class II associations in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among blacks, caucasoids, and Japanese. In: Tsuji K, Aizawa M, Sasazuki T, eds. HLA 1991: Proceedings of the 11th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992, Vol. 1, pp. 713-722.

123. Zeliszewski D, Tiercy J, Boitard C, et al. Extensive study of DRbeta, DQalpha, and DQbeta gene polymorphism in 23 DR2-positive, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Hum Immunol 1992;33:140-147.

124. Sanjeevi CB, Lybrand TP, DeWeese C, et al. Polymorphic amino acid variations in HLA-DQ are associated with systematic physical property changes and occurrence of IDDM. Diabetes 1995;44:125-131.

125. Kockum I, Sanjeevi CB, Eastman S, et al. Population analysis of protection by HLA-DR and DQ genes from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Swedish children with insulin-dependent diabetes and controls. Eur J Immunogenet 1995;22:443-465.

126. Sanjeevi CB, DeWeese C, Landin-Olsson M, et al. Analysis of critical residues if HLA-DQ6 molecules in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Tissue Antigens 1997;50:61-65.

127. Wen L, Wong FS, Tang J, et al. In vivo evidence for the contribution of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ molecules to the development of diabetes. J Exp Med 2000;191:97-104.

128. Miyazaki T, Uno M, Uehira M, et al. Direct evidence for the contribution of unique I-Anod to the development of insulitis in non-obese diabetic mice. Nature 1990;345:722-724.

129. Slattery RM, Kjer-Nielsen L, Allison J, et al. Prevention of diabetes in non-obese diabetic I-Ak transgenic mice. Nature 1990;345:724-726.

130. Lund T, O'Reilly L, Hutchings P, et al. Prevention of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice by transgenes encoding modified I-A beta chain or normal I-E alpha chain. Nature 1990;345:727-729.

131. Nishimoto H, Kikutani H, Yamamura K, et al. Prevention of autoimmune insulitis by expression of IE molecules in NOD mice. Nature 1987;328:432-434.

132. Boitard C, Bendelac A, Richard MF, et al. Prevention of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice by anti-I-A monoclonal antibodies: transfer of protection by splenic T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988;85:9719-9723.

133. Brown JH, Jardetzky T, Saper MA, et al. A hypothetical model of the foreign antigen binding site of class II histocompatibility molecules. Nature 1988;332:845-850.

134. Brown JH, Jardetzky TS, Gorga JC, et al. Three-dimensional structure of the human class II histocompatibility antigen HLA-DR1. Nature 1993;364:33-39.

135. Jardetzky TS, Brown JH, Gorga JC, et al. Three-dimensional structure of a human class II histocompatibility molecule complexed with superantigen. Nature 1994;368:711-718.

136. Turco E, Manfras BJ, Ge L, et al. The x boxes from promoters of HLA class II B genes at different loci do not compete for nuclear protein-specific binding. Immunogenetics 1990;32:117-128.

137. Demotz S, Grey HM, Sette A. The minimal number of class II MHC-antigen complexes needed for T cell activation. Science 1990;249:1028-1030.

138. Haars R, Kronenberg H, Gallaten WM, et al. Rearrangement and expression of T cell antigen receptor and Y-genes during thymic development. J Exp Med 1986;164:1-24.

139. von Boehmer H. Positive selection of lymphocytes. Cell 1994;76:219-228.

140. Nossal GJV. Negative selection of lymphocytes. Cell 1994;76:229-239.

141. Davey MP, Meyer MM, Bakke AC. T Cell receptor Vß gene expression in monozygotic twins: discordance in CD8 subset and in disease states. J Immunol 1994;152:315-321.

142. Nepom GT, Kwok WT. Molecular basis for HLA-DQ association in IDDM. Diabetes 1998;47:1177-1184.

143. Anderson LC, Beaty JS, Nettles JW, et al. Allelic polymorphisms in transcriptional regulatory regions of HLA-DQB genes. J Exp Med 1991;173:181-192.

144. Carcassi C, Trucco G, Trucco M, et al. A new HLA-DR2 extended haplotype is involved in IDDM susceptibility. Hum Immunol 1991;31:159-164.

145. Pugliese A. Genetic protection from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Nutr Metab 1997;10:169-179.

146. DPT-1 Study Group The Diabetes Prevention Trial—Type 1 diabetes (DPT-1): implementation of screening and staging of relatives. Transplant Proc 1995;27:3377.

147. Pugliese A, Kawasaki E, Zeller M, et al. Sequence analysis of the diabetes-protective human leukocyte antigen-DQB1*0602 allele in unaffected, islet cell antibody-positive first degree relatives and in rare patients with type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:1728-1728.

148. Greenbaum CJ, Schatz DA, Cuthbertson D, et al. Islet cell antibody-positive relatives with human leukocyte antigen DQA1*0102, DQB1*0602: identification by the Diabetes Prevention Trial-type 1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:1255-1260.

149. Bell GI, Karam JH, Rutter WJ. Polymorphic DNA region adjacent to the 5' end of the human insulin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981;78:5759-5763.

150. Rotwein P, Chyn R, Chirgwin J, et al. Polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of the human insulin gene and its possible relation to type II diabetes. Science 1981;213:1117-1120.

151. Owerbach D, Nerup J. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the insulin gene in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 1982;31:275-277.

152. Julier C, Hyer RN, Davies J, et al. Insulin-IGF2 region encodes a gene implicated in HLA-DR4-dependent diabetes susceptibility. Nature 1991;354:155-159.

153. Bain SC, Prins JB, Hearne CM, et al. Insulin gene region-encoded susceptibility to type 1 diabetes is not restricted to HLA-DR4-positive individuals. Nat Genet 1992;2:212-215.

154. Bennett ST, Lucassen AM, Gough SCL, et al. Susceptibility to human type 1 diabetes at IDDM2 is determined by tandem repeat variation at the insulin gene minisatellite locus. Nat Genet 1995;9:284-292.

155. Bennett ST, Wilson AJ, Cucca F, et al. IDDM2-VNTR-encoded susceptibility to type 1 diabetes: dominant protection and parental transmission of alleles of the insulin gene-linked minisatellite locus. J Autoimmun 1996;9:415-421.

156. Bennett ST, Wilson AJ, Esposito L, et al. Insulin VNTR allele-specific in type 1 diabetes depend on identity of untransmitted paternal allele. Nat Genet 1997;17:350-352.

157. Lucassen AM, Screaton GR, Julier C, et al. Regulation of insulin gene expression by the IDDM associated, insulin locus haplotype. Hum Mol Genet 1994;4:501-506.

158. Kennedy GC, German MS, Rutter WJ. The minisatellite in the diabetes susceptibility locus IDDM2 regulates insulin transcription. Nat Genet 1995;9:293-298.

159. Krontiris TG. Minisatellites and human disease. Science 1995;269:1682-1683.

160. Krontiris TG, Delvin B, Karp DD, et al. An association between the risk of cancer and mutation in the HRAS1 minisatellite locus. N Engl J Med 1993;329:517-523.

161. Kiaris H, Spandidos DA, Jones AS, et al. Mutations, expression and genomic instability of the H-ras proto-oncogene in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Br J Cancer 1995;72:123-128.

162. Wang YH, Griffith J. Expanded CTG triplet block from the myotonic dystrophy gene create the strongest known nucleosome positioning elements. Nat Genet 1995;25:570-573.

163. McGinnis RE, Spielman RS. Insulin expression: is VNTR allele 698 really anomalous? Nat Genet 1995;10:378-380.

164. Davies JL, Kawaguchi Y, Bennett ST, et al. A genome-wide search for human type I diabetes susceptibility genes. Nature 1994;371:130-136.

165. Cordell HJ, Todd JA, Bennett ST, et al. Two-locus maximum lod score analysis of a multifactorial trait: joint consideration of IDDM2 and IDDM4 with IDDM1 in type I diabetes. Am J Hum Genet 1995;57:920-934.

166. Todd JA. Genetic analysis of type 1 diabetes using whole genome approaches. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:8560-8565.

167. Thomson G. Identifying complex disease genes: progress and paradigms. Nat Genet 1994;8:108-110.

168. Thomson G. Strategies involved in mapping diabetes genes: an overview. Diabetes Rev 1997;5:106-115.

169. Morahan G, Huang D, Tait BD, et al. Markers on distal chromosome 2q linked to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Science 1996;272:1811-1813.

170. Van der Auwera BJ, Vanderwalle CL, Schuit F. et al. CTL-4 gene polymorphism confers susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) independently from age and from other genetic or immune disease markers. The Belgian Diabetes Registry. Clin Exp Immunol 1997;110:98-103.

171. Kruglyak L, Daly M, Reeve-Daly MP, et al. Parametric and nonparametric linkage analysis: a unified multipoint approach. Am J Hum Genet 1996;58:1347-1363.

172. Becker KG, Simon RM, Bailey-Wilson JE, et al. Clustering on non-major histocompatibility complex susceptibility candidate loci in human autoimmune diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:8879-8894.

173. Morel L, Rudofsky UH, Longmate JA, et al. Polygenic control of susceptibility to murine systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunity 1995;1:219-229.

174. Kono DH, Burlingame RW, Owens DG, et al. Lupus susceptibility loci in New Zealand mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:19,168-19,172.

175. Gottlieb PA, Eisenbarth GS. Diagnosis and treatment of pre-insulin dependent diabetes. Annu Rev Med 1998;49:391-405.

176. Gaffney PM, Kearns GM, Shark KB, et al. A genome-wide search for susceptibility genes in human systemic lupus erythematosus sib-pair families. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:14,875-14,879.

177. Daniels SE, Bhattacharrya S, James A, et al. A genome-wide search for quantitative trait loci underlying asthma. Nature 1996;383:247-250.

178. Haines JL, Ter-Minassian M, Bazyk A, et al. A complete genome screen for multiple sclerosis underscores a role for the major histocompatibility complex. Nat Genet 1996;13:469-471.

179. Collins A, Frezal J, Teague J, et al. A metric map of humans: 23,500 loci in 850 bands. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;93:14,771-14,775.

180. She J-X, Marron MP. Genetic susceptibility factors in type 1 diabetes: linkage, disequilibrium and functional analyses. Curr Opin Immunol 1998;114:370-376.

181. Lucassen AM, Julier C, Beressi JP, et al. Susceptibility to insulin dependent diabetes maps to a 4.1 kb segment of DNA spanning the insulin gene and associated VNTR. Nat Genet 1993;4:305-310.

182. Halminen M, Veijola R, Reijonen H, et al. Effect of polymorphism in the insulin gene region on IDDM susceptibility and insulin secretion. Eur J Clin Invest 1996;26:847-852.

183. Vafiadis P, Bennett ST, Todd JA, et al. Divergence between genetic determinants of IGF2 transcription levels in leukocytes and of IDDM2-encoded susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2933-2939.

184. Mein CA, Esposito L, Dunn MG, et al. A search for type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes in families from the United Kingdom. Nat Genet 1998;19:297-300.

185. Lernmark Ä, Ott J. Sometimes it's hot, sometimes it's not. Nat Genet 1998;19:213-214.

186. Sattar MA, Al-Sughyer AA, Siboo R. Coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and dermatomyositis in a patient with diabetes mellitus and the associated linked HLA antigens. Br J Rheumatol 1988;27:146-149.

187. Yamato E, Ikegami H, Kawaguchi Y, et al. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with autoimmune thyroiditis and rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med Sci 1997;313:64-66.

188. Rose NR. Autoimmune disease—tracing the shared threads. Hosp Pract 1997;32:147-154.

189. Aaltonen J, Horelli-Kuitunen N, Fan J-B, et al. High-resolution physical and transcriptional mapping of the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy locus on chromosome 21q22.3. Genome Res 1997;7:820-829.

190. The Finnish-German APECED Consortium. An autoimmune disease, APECED, caused by mutations in a novel gene featuring two PHD-type zinc-finger domains. Nat Genet 1997;17:399-403.

191. Nagamine K, Peterson P, Scott HS, et al. Positional cloning of the APECED gene. Nat Genet 1997;17:393-398.

192. Luppi P, Rossiello MR, Faas S, Trucco M. Genetic background and environment contribute synergis-tically to the onset of autoimmune diseases. J Mol Med 1995;73:381-393.

193. Rosner G, Martell J, Trucco M. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, 2000, pp. 233-251.

194. Serreze DV, Leiter EH. Genes and cellular requirements for autoimmune diabetes susceptibility in NOD mice. In: von Herrath H, ed. Molecular Pathology of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Karger, New York, 2001, pp. 31-67.

195. Nepom GT. Class II antigens and disease susceptibility. Annu Rev Med 1995;46:17-25.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Diabetes Sustenance

Diabetes Sustenance

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Dealing With Diabetes The Healthy Way. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Learning How Nutritional Supplements Can Control Sugar Levels.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment