Treadmill Cardio Workouts
Figure 16.2 Anginal perceptual thresholds in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Data points are the time from onset of 0.1 mV ST segment depression to onset of angina in individual patients during treadmill exercise. Figure 16.2 Anginal perceptual thresholds in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Data points are the time from onset of 0.1 mV ST segment depression to onset of angina in individual patients during treadmill exercise.
I find that I can acclimate myself to the new time zone, especially the more difficult eastern direction, if I exercise as early as possible in the new morning. Thirty minutes on a treadmill or elliptical trainer allows me to stay awake in early morning meetings. Try this with your child to see if you both can overcome some jet lag. Early morning exercise also provides all the benefits of general exercise described in Chapter 9.
In patients with a good history of intermittent claudication but detectable peripheral pulses, treadmill testing may be indicated. Exercise will lead to reduction or loss of peripheral pulses with symptoms of intermittent claudication, and the ABPI often falls to below 0.75. More advanced techniques to assess vascular insufficiency include the use of transcutaneous monitoring of the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the foot using an electrode placed just proximal to the second and third metatarsal heads (Carrington etal., 2001). A partial pressure of oxygen of
The Duke treadmill score can provide an additional method of evaluating the patient that has received an exercise ECG. The treadmill score is the exercise time minus (5 x ST elevation in mm) minus (4 x exercise angina) where 0 no angina, 1 nonlimiting angina, and 2 exercise-limiting angina. Low risk is a score of 5 or higher, moderate risk is -10 to +4 and high risk is -11 or lower. (e.g., treadmill walking at the desired target heart rate for 30 min).
The participants in this study were young white and black men and women (ages 1830) who completed treadmill testing and then were followed from 1985 to 2001. Glucose, lipids, and blood pressures were measured and physical activity was assessed by interview and self-reporting. Outcome measurements included hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type-2 diabetes. These results are similar to other studies where maximum oxygen uptake was used to measure fitness rather than treadmill-testing time. Nonetheless, it underscores the fact that suboptimal physical activity and fitness increase risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, lipid disorders, and metabolic syndrome.
Several studies have shown that large amounts of antioxidant nutrients can greatly reduce the frequency and severity of asthmatic reactions. Herman A. Cohen, M.D., of Rabin Medical Center, Israel, gave 2 grams of vitamin C or a placebo to twenty men and women, ages seven to twenty-eight, all with exercise-induced asthma. An hour after taking the vitamin or placebo, their lung function was measured as they walked or ran on a treadmill. Half of the patients had milder asthmatic reactions after taking the vitamin C, while those taking placebos experienced a significant decline in lung function. Similarly, researchers at the University of Washington, Seattle, gave vitamin E (400 IU) and vitamin C (500 mg) daily to patients with asthma who were exposed to ozone (an air pollutant) and asked to run on a treadmill. After taking the antioxidants, the patients tolerated the ozone and exercise with considerably less breathing difficulty and, sometimes, with improvements in lung function. copene,...
And treatment of medical complications, aggressive treatment of risk factors (e.g. hypertension and atrial fibrillation) and therapy. Increasing interest is now being shown in identifying those therapies which work, when they should be used and how frequently (Kwakkel et al 1999). Therapy directed at specific tasks appears more likely to produce better outcomes. For example, early treadmill training with partial body support may produce better walking (Hesse et al 1995) and the more practice the better the result (Kwakkel et al 1999). However, the relationship between the damaged brain tissue and therapies is poorly understood and the impact of various therapy approaches on neural recovery is only starting to be explored (Pomeroy and Tallis 2000).
Although a standard exercise treadmill test is economical and widely available, in diabetic patients who are at an increased risk for CAD a treadmill test is less sensitive hence a stress imaging test would be more valuable. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of coronary artery disease among patients with diabetes was 75 and 77 for the exercise test and 80 and 87 for thallium myocardial scintigraphy (5). This supports the use of noninvasive imaging tests for the detection of coronary artery disease, especially in those patients who have multiple cardiac risk factors. The sensitivity and specificity of stress echocardiography is comparable to that of nuclear SPECT imaging study in the general population, and it is reasonable to assume that the same should also be true for diabetic patients, although comparative studies are not available. The decision to refer a patient for a nuclear or echocardiographic stress test should be based on the available resources and local...
Hamroff and colleges found exercise capacity in a treadmill exercise significantly improved over a 6 months follow-up period, when 50 mg of Losartan was added to the maximal recommended or tolerated doses of ACE-I inhibitor in a placebo-controlled study including 33 patients with heart failure 33 .
Hamroff and colleagues found exercise capacity in a treadmill exercise significantly improved over a 6-mo follow-up period, when 50 mg of Losartan was added to the maximal recommended or tolerated doses of ACE inhibitor in a placebo-controlled study including 33 patients with heart failure (45). In a larger study (the randomized evaluation of strategies for left ventricular dysfunction RESOLVD pilot trial), 768 heart failure patients (New York Heart Association NYHA II-IV) were randomized to either candesartan (up to 8 mg) or enalapril, or candesartan and enalapril in combination. The combination of candesartan and enalapril was more effective in preventing left ventricular remodeling than both candesartan and enalapril alone. Levels of brain natriuretic peptide were also significantly reduced during the 43-wk follow-up period (46). The CHARM-added (47) and the Valsortan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT) are the only large dual blockade in heart failure trial available...
An interesting trial has been published under the name Harvard Alumni study (5) in 16,936 college alumni the amount of leisure time physical activity was estimated from questionnaires and structured interviews. After an observation time between 12 and 16 years participants in the most active group reduced their cardiovascular risk by 50 as compared to inactive persons. All of the above studies determined physical activity by questionnaire with an inherent degree of error. A recently published trial used the maximal work capacity on a treadmill to determine physical fitness as a hard parameter in more than 6000 patients referred for evaluation of various angina-like symptoms. Cardiovascular risk in the fittest quintile was only one-quarter of the risk in the quintile with the lowest fitness (6). In total there are more than 30 publications with nearly 250,000 enrolled patients, followed for an average of 10 years, documenting the efficacy of regular physical exercise to reduce...
Patients with type 2 diabetes had ST depression consistent with ischemia during treadmill stress testing. Approximately half of these patients had nuclear scans consistent with coronary artery disease (94,97). Additional smaller studies have reported asymptomatic coronary artery disease by coronary angiography in approximately 8 to 12 of diabetic patients. In addition to silent ischemia, diabetic patients also have a higher incidence of silent MI (98-100). The utility of noninvasive screening was examined in a study of 1900 asymptomatic diabetic patients, in which stress testing with dipyridamole myocardial contrast echocardiography followed by coronary angiography in those with perfusion defects, was performed. The positive predictive value of stress testing was best in those patients with two or more risk factors (as compared to patients with one or less risk factor), with significantly higher rates of three-vessel disease (33 vs. 8 ), diffuse disease (55 vs. 18 ), and vessel...
It should be noted that muscles can also be stimulated in situ via the innervating nerve or by acute exercise and then removed and placed in incubation for measurement of GLUT-4 translocation. In the first case, the muscle is stimulated by 200-ms trains of stimuli at a frequency of 70 Hz, with each impulse in a train being 0.1 ms. The trains are delivered one per second at 10-15 V for 2 X 10 min with a 1-min rest in between. For acute exercise, rats can run on a treadmill at 20 m min for 1 h or swim for 3 h (12). Finally, as an alternative to contraction or exercise, incubated muscles can be gassed for 1 h with 95 N2 5 CO2 during the preincubation. This mimics the effects of contraction and serves as a suitable alternative if an apparatus for electrically stimulated contraction is not available (4).
Cardiorespiratory fitness defined by measurement of oxygen consumption at a submaximal or maximal workload on a graded treadmill or bicycle ergometry, has been used extensively to validate physical activity assessment tools (31-33). The rationale for using fitness as a validation method for physical activity extends from the consistent findings that aerobic activity improves cardiorespiratory fitness (34). When well-defined laboratory criteria are used, physical fitness testing can be highly reproducible and avoids some of the subjective pitfalls of questionnaires. Fitness provides an objective way of comparing individuals in the population and of evaluating progress in exercise interventions. Like physical activity, physical fitness has been shown to be protective against cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality (35-37) and may be one mechanism whereby physical activity prevents disease (38). However, physical fitness has a strong genetic component (39). Because of the...
It is particularly difficult to establish the diagnosis of coronary heart disease in the diabetic patient with renal failure. Because of autonomic polyneuropathy, coronary disease is often silent with episodes of silent myocardial ischemia and silent MI. Coronary heart disease is not well predicted by baseline or exercise EKG (the latter is difficult to perform in polyneuropathy patients with muscular atrophy or arterial occlusive disease). Conventional screening tests such as treadmill or exercise EKG are therefore unreliable. Dipyridamol thallium scans predict myocardial ischemia, but are not well correlated to the findings on coronarography (i.e., do not well predict the presence of lesions necessitating intervention). However, it has been recommended as a screening
Either high or low capacity for aerobic exercise. They identified rats with a high capacity to run on a treadmill and mated them with one another, and they did the same for animals with a low running capacity. Since oxygen metabolism is such a large part of biology, defects in it should underlie our pathology, explains Britton.
If you are over 35, have heart disease or cardiovascular risk factors, or have microvascular complications, peripheral vascular disease, or autonomic neuropathy, you'll need a treadmill stress test that includes an electrocardiogram. This will test how a workout affects your heart activity and blood pressure. It can also help detect silent heart disease. You will be asked to walk on a treadmill while your blood pressure and heart function are monitored. Exercise physiologists people trained to study the effects of physical activity on the body do a variety of tests to determine your fitness level. In addition to a treadmill stress test to find out how much exercise you can safely do, they'll measure your strength, flexibility, and endurance and the percent body fat. Together with your provider, you and the exercise physiologist can create an exercise plan.
How To Keep Your Treadmill Running
Buying a treadmill is hard enough. Choosing the best out of many treadmills in the market is nigh impossible. But once youve got the treadmill youve always wanted, are your worries truly over? Well, they certainly are, but only if you maintain your treadmill properly.