At present there is no consistent evidence that the species of insulin is an important determinant of the counterregulatory response to hypoglycaemia. Over 25 clinical laboratory studies have examined the effect of insulin species on the counterregulatory response to hypogly-caemia induced by an intravenous bolus, intravenous infusion, or subcutaneous injection of insulin (Fisher and Frier, 1993; Jorgensson et al., 1994). Most of the studies showed no significant differences between the hormonal responses. Two studies showed a reduction in the epinephrine response to hypoglycaemia, and both of these studies also reported diminished autonomic symptoms to hypoglycaemia after human insulin (Schluter et al., 1982; Heine et al., 1989).
A meta-analysis comparison of the effects of human and animal insulin as well as of the adverse reaction profiles did not show clinically relevant differences between species especially in terms of risk and responses to hypoglycaemia (Richter and Neises, 2005).
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