Foods That Reduce Inflammation

Organic Health Protocol

This eBook from professional trainer and nutritionist Thomas DeLauer and Dr. Mike Brookins shows you all of the secrets to reducing inflammation all through your body. These body hacks are secrets to the way that your body works that you would never have thought of. You will learn the foods that you will need to avoid in order to have a really healthy life. You will learn to reset your body in 7 days or less just by eating organic, really healthy foods. Food affects they way that your body works so much more than people tend to believe. You will learn how to cut through all the nonsense that you will read on the internet and get right to the part that heals your inflammation and other health problems. Inflammation is only a symptom If you are not healthy and eating well, your whole body will suffer. We give you a way to reverse that! More here...

Organic Health Protocol Summary


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Contents: Ebook
Author: Thomas DeLauer
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Highly Recommended

The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this book are precise.

As a whole, this e-book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Sources of Anti Inflammatory Products

Many companies market a variety of anti-inflammatory supplements. Although these companies are not allowed to make a therapeutic claim for nutritional supplements, many of their product names are often very suggestive, and clerks in health food stores and pharmacies can often provide guidance. Some products are formulated as general anti-inflammatory supplements with many ingredients, whereas others are stand-alone products such as omega-3 fish oil, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), glucosamine, and vitamin E supplements. The following companies produce and market high-quality products.

Factoring In Your Anti Inflammatory Supplements

High or very high on quizzes 1 or 2 but low on quiz 3 You have been or are at high risk of chronic inflammation. You should take anti-inflammatory supplements. Healthy oils play a pivotal role in controlling and reversing inflammation because they contain highly concentrated amounts of specific antiinflammatory nutrients. Chief among these highly beneficial nutrients are omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils gamma-linolenic acid and olive oil. A wholesome diet, such as the one recommended in this book, provides ample quantities of these oils. However, you may want extra amounts of them to either jump-start your body's anti-inflammatory activities or to reverse health problems. You can buy omega-3 fatty acids, and gamma-linolenic acid in capsule form. Even though olive oil is a food product, not a supplement that comes in capsule form, this chapter discusses all three of these oils because they work together in the body to stem inflammation. Using generous amounts of olive oil in your...

Vitamins and More to Reduce Inflammation

In a sense, all essential nutrients play roles in the body's management of inflammation, because all such nutrients help maintain overall health. However, a number of additional nutrients, as well as herbs, stand out for their anti-inflammatory or health-regenerating, properties. These nutrients work in a variety of ways. For example, some B vitamins prevent inflammation-triggering damage to artery walls, whereas some antioxidants inhibit specific inflammation-promoting substances. Herbs also work in a number of ways, as antioxidants and as mild Cox-2 inhibitors. This chapter describes approximately two dozen additional supplements and herbs that can be of benefit in inflammatory disorders. In general, these supplements should be tried after you have followed the Anti-Inflammation Syndrome Diet Plan and principal inflammation-reversing supplements. Some of these supplements, such as Pycnogenol, have powerful anti-inflammatory effects it may be worthwhile trying it and others one at a...

Nutrients That Can Help

That said, a key objective of supplementation should be to lower glucose levels and improve insulin function, which should in turn reduce inflammation. The chief supplements for improving glucose tolerance and insulin function are alpha-lipoic acid, chromium picolinate, vitamin E, vitamin C, and silymarin (an antioxidant extract of the herb milk thistle). If you are taking any drug for controlling glucose, be aware that your medication requirements may decrease. By their nature, antioxidants have anti-inflammatory properties. Some antioxidants also influence the production of cytokines, so they reduce inflammation via another means. Based on insulin's fundamental role in biology, it is likely that the hormone controls the activity of some pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is worthwhile targeting a fasting glucose of between 75 and 85 mg dl and a fasting insulin under 7 mcIU ml.

How to Take and Use Vitamin E

Vitamin E's impressive anti-inflammatory properties suggest that supplements would be beneficial in most and perhaps all inflammatory diseases, though its effect may be very subtle in some conditions. The food supply even a diet built around whole foods does not provide sufficient amounts of vitamin E, and most dietary vitamin E consists of the gamma tocopherol form, which has a limited role in human health. cinate, d-alpha tocopherol with other mixed natural tocopherols, which would include a little beta and gamma tocopherol, or a mix of natural vitamin E tocopherols and tocotrienols. The mixed tocopherols most closely resemble how the vitamin occurs in nature, and at least gamma to-copherol may provide additional anti-inflammatory properties. Another option would be a supplement containing mixed natural vitamin E toco-pherols and tocotrienols (a less well-known group of vitamin E molecules, but one that is gaining more recognition). Health and natural food stores tend to sell...

What Else Might Help

Pycnogenol, a complex of natural antioxidants obtained from the bark of French maritime pine trees, has impressive anti-inflammatory properties. It also increases the body's synthesis of collagen and elastin, another tissue protein. Anthony Martin, D.C., of Montr al, has advised many professional Canadian athletes who have been injured. In one case, a hockey player who had injured his knee was told by his team's physician that he would probably need surgery and be on the sidelines for eight weeks. Martin recommended that the player take 400 mg daily of Pycnogenol. His knee stopped swelling, and after a week he no longer needed crutches.

The Issue of Mercury in Fish

Some types of fish absorb mercury, a toxic metal. So how do you address this issue when eating anti-inflammatory fish Taking selenium supplements might not be a bad idea in general, because this essential mineral boosts antioxidant levels in the body, which will have an anti-inflammatory effect. A daily supplement containing 200 mcg of selenium supplements (preferably the high-selenium yeast form, which will be identified on the label) makes good sense.

The Anti Inflammation Syndrome Step Eat More Fish Especially Cold Water Varieties

Cold-water fish contain the largest amounts of the most biologically active, preformed omega-3 fatty acids. Preformed means that the fatty acids exist as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the body does not have to make them from alpha-linolenic acid. This shortcut enables your body to put the anti-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA to work right away. The fish with the highest concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are mackerel, Pacific herring, anchovy, lake trout, king salmon, and Atlantic salmon. Tuna, halibut, cod, sole, snapper, crab, and shrimp contain smaller quantities of omega-3 fatty acids, but they are still healthy. Wild salmon contains a higher portion of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids compared with farmed salmon. All types of Alaskan salmon including king, coho, and sokeye are always wild. By 2004, labeling laws will require distributors to identify whether the salmon was wild or farmed.

The Anti Inflammation Syndrome Step Use Spices and Herbs to Flavor Foods

A variety of spices and herbs adds a palette of flavors to foods. But the benefits of basil, oregano, garlic, and other spices and herbs go beyond taste. Culinary herbs are rich in antioxidant flavonoids and natural Cox-2 inhibitors. While the amounts of spices and herbs in a single meal may not have a substantial anti-inflammatory effect, they enhance an anti-inflammatory dietary regimen.

The Anti Inflammation Syndrome Step Avoid Conventional Cooking Oils

Conventional cooking oils, such as corn, peanut, safflower, soybean, sunflower, and cottonseed oils, are high in pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids and contain virtually no anti-inflammatory omega-3 or omega-9 fatty acids. These oils are commonly used in an enormous number of processed and packaged foods, including microwave meals, breakfast bars, salad dressings, and in many restaurants. The extensive use of these cooking oils is largely why the modern diet contains twenty to thirty times more pro-inflammatory than anti-inflammatory oils.

Standard Treatment

Dentists know that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen can slow the loss of bone in periodontitis. So this question arises Why not use natural anti-inflammatory nutrients Unfortunately, the answer is that most dentists are probably less knowledgeable than most physicians about the importance of nutrition in health.

The Inflammation Syndrome Connection

What causes the immune overreactivity It often seems to be related to a lack of anti-inflammatory nutrients in the diet. The modern diet, with a lopsided intake of fats, particularly highly refined fats and oils, may set the stage for MS in genetically susceptible people. Although the prevalence of MS increases at extreme northern and southern latitudes, people living along the coast of Norway and throughout Japan have a relatively low incidence of MS. Such populations eat large amounts of fish, which are rich in anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids.

What about doing a YAG

There is no clear consensus on whether performing YAG laser capsulotomy can stir up retinopathy. It probably does not have much of an effect but, as usual, there are never any guarantees. If you have to do a lot of hacking and slashing with the YAG you may cause enough inflammation to affect the retina, especially if the patient has already had complicated cataract surgery. It probably makes sense to put diabetics on some sort of anti-inflammatory drop around the time of the laser more laser or more preexisting damage may mean more topical therapy.

Novel nonmetabolic actions of insulin

The nonmetabolic actions of insulin are readily explained by the recent observations that insulin is an anti-inflammatory hormone and that macronutrient intake is Insulin has been shown to suppress NFkB binding activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, p47phox expression, increase inhibitor kappa-B (IkB) expression in mononuclear cells (MNCs), and suppress plasma concentrations of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).16 In addition, insulin suppresses AP-1 and Egr-1, two pro-inflammatory transcription factors and their respective genes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue factor (TF), and PAI-1.17-19 Thus, insulin exerts comprehensive anti-inflammatory effects and also has anti-oxidant effects as reflected in the suppression of ROS generation and p47phox expression (Figure 2.1).1620 Two further pieces of evidence demonstrating the anti-inflammatory action of insulin have emerged recently. First, the treatment of...

Vitamin E and Alzheimers Disease

Research has shown that long-term use of anti-inflammatory medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can lower the risk of Alzheimer's disease and help maintain cognitive function in patients with the disease. However, NSAIDs pose serious side effects and do not address the root of the problem. variety of pro-inflammatory compounds congregate in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. It is likely that vitamin E's anti-inflammatory properties also help prevent and slow the disease's progression. Meanwhile, Sano has begun a new study to determine whether large amounts of supplemental vitamin E might slow the progress of Alzheimer's disease in its earlier stages.

Involvement Of Redox And Glycooxidative Mechanisms In The Pathogenesis Of Dn In Vivo

Evidence to support a role for oxidative and or glycooxidative stress in the pathogenesis of DN in vivo has come largely from studies of the effects of inhibitors of AGE formation and those of conventional exogenous antioxidants on renal function and structure in experimental diabetes. There are only limited data on the effects of these same interventions on renal injury in human diabetes, and on the impact of genetically induced alterations in antioxidant enzymes on renal injury in diabetic animals. However, there is increasing recognition that the renoprotective actions of interventions of proven efficacy in human DN, notably those of ACEIs and ARBs, may involve or at least are associated with, reductions in oxidative stress and AGE formation (142,143). Similarly, though not yet assessed with respect to DN, vascular protection afforded by statins in diabetics may be linked to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as lipid-lowering actions of these agents (155). Thus, at least...

Maureen Drugs Didnt Work

She soon began experiencing a significant increase in her joint pain, which was not relieved by anti-inflammatory medications. When Maureen related her health history to Hunter Yost, M.D., of Tucson, Arizona, he immediately recognized the likely cause of her increased pain she is one of those people who is nightshade-sensitive.

Eat Meat from Free Range or Grass Fed Animals

The animals that provided meat to Paleolithic peoples ate grass and leaves, which are rich sources of alpha-linolenic acid. For this reason, game meat contains large amounts of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids. Today, when farm animals are fed corn and other grains, their mus

What Are Skin Disorders

Your skin is your body's largest and most direct interface to the world around you. As such, it is exposed to a wide variety of insults, including air pollution, chemicals, sunlight, bacteria, and viruses. Under these circumstances, a vast number of conditions can cause transitory or chronic inflammatory skin disorders. Only a few examples of inflammatory skin disorders will be described here as proof that anti-inflammatory nutrients can be beneficial. Among these disorders are contact dermatitis, sunburn, psoriasis, and eczema.

The Anti Inflammation Syndrome Step Use Olive Oil as Your Primary Cooking

Extra-virgin olive oil should be your main cooking oil. It is rich in antiinflammatory oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid), vitamin E, and polyphe-nolic flavonoids. Different brands of olive oil, and olive oil derived from different types of olives, have different flavors, so it is good to try different ones. Always use extra-virgin olive oil, an indicator of high quality, and look for a date on the bottle. The olive oil is best used within a year of picking and bottling, but it can be used for cooking for two to three years. Although olive oil is a pressed oil, which was not consumed during our Paleolithic development, it is an acceptable compromise for our modern times. The omega-9 fatty acids in olive oil help offset years of excessive omega-6 intake. Olive oil, like fish oil, is also valuable for its potent anti-inflammatory properties. Consider it a supplement with an exceptional flavor. As an alternative to olive oil if you want a cooking oil with a different taste, cold pressed...

Vitamin E and Heart Disease

Today, with a clearer picture of the role of inflammation in heart disease and good documentation for the anti-inflammatory and heart-protective role of vitamin E, the early successes of the Shute brothers are better understood. Certainly, vitamin E has important health roles beyond that of just a mild and safe anti-inflammatory nutrient. It is the body's principal fat-soluble antioxidant and, as such, blocks free-radical oxidation to cholesterol, which stimulates inflammation and is one of the initiators of heart disease. As an anticoagulant, vitamin E helps prevent abnormal blood clots. It also inhibits the proliferation of smooth muscle cells in coronary arteries, which contributes to the narrowing of blood vessels.

Genomics and Gene Expression

In summary, the greater negative impact of the visceral fat depot on metabolic pathways appears to be attributable, at least partly, to the physiological and metabolic nature of visceral adipose tissue (Fig. 4). Visceral adipocyte lipolysis is more sensitive to b-adrenergic agonists and less to its suppression by insulin. Even if this visceral fat is not a major contributor to whole-body FFA production, its altered lipolytic responsiveness, amplified by the release of FFA directly in the portal vein of abdominally obese individuals, may play a significant role. As previously described, visceral adipocytes and other cells contained in the visceral fat depots reveal a distinct secretion pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines compared with cells located in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The greater proinflammatory potential of the visceral adipocyte may alter local and systemic metabolism. Visceral adipocytes and surrounding cells secrete more proinflammatory adipokines such as...

Vascular Effects of Estrogens

NO synthesis by endothelial cells is of paramount importance for the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow and for control of the hemostatic process. Furthermore, endothelium-derived NO is a potent anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic factor, being able to prevent endothelial cell dysfunction that has been proposed as an early manifestation of atherosclerosis (26,27).

Fish And Omega Fatty Acids

The cardioprotective benefits of the 'Mediterranean' diet and its reduction of mortality are strikingly evident in the results of studies such as the DART study (32) and the Lyon Diet Heart Study (33). The results of these studies are not solely due to the regular inclusion of oily fish, but this did have a key role. Oily fish such as mackerel, herring, sardines, trout and salmon are a rich source of the n-3 polyunsaturates. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, are thought to be beneficial due to their anti-thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory action as well as their triglyceride-lowering effects. The UK Department of Health has recommended to the general population that they consume two portions of fish (100 g or 3-4 oz portion) a week, one of which should be oily (34). People with diabetes should be encouraged to include oily fish in the diet, ideally two to three times a week (35). Fish oils are increasingly available in capsule or...

Tubular and Interstitial Injury

Tubulo-interstitial fibrosis is the most important predictor of renal insufficiency in CRD of diverse etiology (63). In DN, the degree of tubular and tubulo-interstitial change (rather than glomerulopathy) accurately reflect the progression of renal dysfunction (90). Thus, our attention was directed to effects of rh-HGF treatment on tubular and interstitial lesions. Monocyte chemoattractant factor (MCP)-1 is a key cytokine needed for recruiting inflammatory cells such as macrophages, which are a major source of TGF-P1 and linked to subsequent fibrogenesis (91,92). Shimizu et al. (92) reported that inhibition of the MCP-1 gene repressed renal inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of CRD. However, whether MCP-1 expression is modulated by HGF under diabetic conditions was unclear. In our diabetic mice, MCP-1 was mainly detected on proximal tubular cells, followed by interstitial macrophage infiltration. The administration of HGF suppressed the interstitial macrophage infiltration in...

In Vitro Models of BMP Function

Several studies suggest that BMP-7 may have anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects on renal tubular epithelial cells. Gould et al. (46) employed a commercial cDNA array to identify genes regulated by exposure of cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells to BMP-7, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, or the combination of both cytokines. In the same studies, the authors used real-time RT-PCR to confirm that BMP-7 suppresses several TNF-a-stimulated proinflammatory cytokines interleukins (IL)-6 and -8, chemokines, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. BMP-7 also reduced proximal tubular expression of endothelin-2 and the adenosine A1 receptor, but increased endothelin-1. The net effect of these transcriptional changes may be increased blood flow in peritubular capillaries. Neutralization of endogenous BMP-7 in proximal tubular epithelial cells induces the expression of ECM molecules (fibronectin and collagen-III) and the extracellular BMP-binding protein gremlin (47). These...

Eat a Lot of Vegetables the More Colorful the Better

More than five thousand flavonoids (one subfamily among polyphenols) have been identified in plants. Quercetin, one particular anti-inflammatory flavonoid, is found in apples and onions. A small apple (about 3.5 oz) contains approximately 5.7 mg of vitamin C, but more than 500 mg of antioxidant polyphenols and flavonoids, which together are equivalent to 1,500 mg of vitamin C.

Navigating Restaurant Food

Family-run ethnic and upscale nouvelle cuisine restaurants often use fresh ingredients, more anti-inflammatory nutrients, and are generally more accommodating when diners ask for modifications to meals. For example, restaurants will usually serve, when asked, a sandwich without bread and substitute some sort of steamed vegetable or a salad for French fries.

What Are Gastritis Ulcers and Stomach Cancer

However, there is a wrinkle to this story. With the successful use of antibiotics in eradicating H. pylori infections, a new leading cause of gastritis and ulcers has emerged nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and coxibs. All NSAIDs, including the so-called Cox-2 selective drugs, disrupt the activity of cyclo-oxygenase-1 (Cox-1), an enzyme critical for fatty acid production and for maintaining the health of the stomach wall.

Anti Inflammation Syndrome Menu Plans and Recipes

It is worthwhile keeping several guidelines in mind when preparing anti-inflammatory meals at home. obtainable a pizza, burger and fries, or microwave lunch or din-ner which are typically rich in pro-inflammatory ingredients. Making a fresh, anti-inflammatory dinner will not take a long time if you have done a modicum of planning. You can do this planning with a pen and pad of paper during television commercials, during a break at work, and perhaps while commuting. You can also stimulate your culinary creativity by thumbing through cookbooks in bookstores. 6. Many of the dinner recipes emphasize fish because of their rich reservoir of anti-inflammatory compounds. If you hate the taste of fish, don't give up. Follow the other dietary principles and be sure to take fish oil capsules to obtain the necessary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). You might also try just one fish recipe, such as fresh tuna, to determine whether you genuinely dislike fish or whether you...

Victor Olympic Nutrition

S0ren Mavrogenis, the physiotherapist for the Danish Olympic team, began recommending a combination of omega-3 fatty acids, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in 1996. At the time he had been treating the inflamed knee of a female rower but had not been able to help her. Because of the side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), Mavrogenis was reluctant to recommend them for long-term use.

Roberta Natural Anti Inflammatories for Crohns Disease

In 1986 Roberta consulted with Lieberman about a diagnosis of Crohn's disease. She was fourteen years old and previously had seen several gastrointestinal specialists. By this time Roberta was taking two prescription anti-inflammatory drugs, prednisone and sulfasalazine, but was still experiencing vomiting and diarrhea and had lost weight. Her physician had recently suggested surgery to remove the lower portion of her ileum, part of the small intestine. In terms of diet, Lieberman recommended that Roberta avoid all food containing gluten chiefly wheat, rye, and barley as well as dairy. She also suggested a number of supplements. Among them were betonite clay and psyllium supplements, both of which add bulk without being a laxative. This nonlaxative effect was important to avoid further diarrhea. Lieberman also suggested fish oils for their anti-inflammatory properties and a number of antioxidants, including 1,000 mg of vitamin C and 1,200 of natural vitamin E, plus a high-potency...

Flavonoids and Polyphenols

As a family of vitaminlike nutrients, flavonoids and polyphenols possess striking anti-inflammatory properties. More than five thousand flavonoids, sometimes referred to as bioflavonoids, have been identified in plants, and they are part of a larger group of water-soluble chemical antioxidants known as polyphenols. All of these compounds function as light-absorbing plant pigments as they absorb light, they limit the formation of hazardous free radicals. Flavonoids and polyphenols provide the blue in blueberries and the red in raspberries and strawberries. (Some of the other colors are the result of carotenoids. See Beta-Carotene on page 143.) It is likely that in a diet that includes a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables, a person consumes hundreds if not thousands of these antioxidants.

Recent Developments

2 Aspirin and the metabolic syndrome. The antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin contribute to its benefit in preventing macrovascular complications of diabetes. Recent evidence5 suggests that the drug may also reduce post-prandial excursions in glucose and free fatty acids, in addition to reducing insulin resistance. The clinical significance of these observations and the optimal dose of aspirin to achieve these effects have yet to be determined.

The Inflammatory Response And Depression

Excess inflammation may also play a role in the development of depression and contribute to poor response to antidepressants. A recent study found that an increased inflammatory state at baseline predicted incident onset of depression in elderly individuals without a prior history of depression, suggesting that excess inflammation precedes depression (61). Inflammatory mediators can lead to glutamate-receptor agonism and increase glutamate release. Recently, glutamate has been implicated in depression. During both acute and remitted phases of illness, depressed patients have elevated levels of glutamate in some brain regions. Activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate can then activate microglia and cause further release of inflammatory mediators, and more glutamate release, as well as inhibition of amino acid removal by astroglia. Inflammatory mediators can activate both neu-rotoxic and neurotrophic microglia. It has been hypothesized that imbalance between T-helper cell type 1 (Th1)...

Therapeutic targets for reducing oxidant stress in overweight and obese patients

Emerging evidence has implicated increased dietary intake of fish oil containing large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty eicosapentaenoic acid (20 5, o> -3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22 6, ra-3, DHA), as beneficial in the prevention and treatment of a number of diseases in which environmental and lifestyle factors play roles. These include atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and sudden death, metabolic syndrome, neurodegeneration, and various inflammatory disorders among others, but the mechanisms by which fish oil is protective are unknown.54-57 Recent data, however, suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects and other biologically relevant properties of ra-3 fatty acids are due, in part, to the generation of various bioactive oxidation products.58-63 One potentially important anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory mechanism of ra-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is their interference with the arachidonic acid cascade that generates pro-inflammatory eicosanoids.54,64,65 EPA can...

Elevated acutephase markers in subjects at risk of type diabetes

Finally, it should be recognised that whilst inflammatory parameters are clearly elevated in diabetes and almost certainly contribute to its accelerated atherogenesis, the current balance of evidence does not support the use of related markers, such as CRP, to enhance CVD risk prediction. This is partly due to the close relationship of CRP with existing risk factors and hence the magnitude of its independence in CVD prediction is too low to enhance risk factor stratification (Sattar and Lowe, 2006). That said, considerable efforts are being made to better understand the exact nature of the inflammatory insult in diabetes, in order to develop novel preventative measures. Moreover, many current modalities for treatment of diabetes and its vascular risk exhibit anti-inflammatory effects.

Nonreninangiotensinaldosterone System Therapies And Proteinuria

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are prostaglandin inhibitors (e.g., indomethacin) lower urine protein excretion at relatively high doses and especially in conjunction with a low-sodium diet 92, 134-146 . However these drugs reduce glomerular filtration rate and reduce renal potassium excretion as well as having considerable gastrointestinal intolerability in patients with severe kidney dysfunction 147 . In patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, use of NSAIDS may be associated with hyperkalemia or acute renal failure.

Conclusion inflammation hypothesis of metabolic syndrome

The pro-inflammatory state induces insulin resistance leading to clinical and biochemical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. This resistance to insulin action further promotes inflammation through increases in lipolysis and plasma FFA concentrations on one hand and interference with the anti-inflammatory effect of insulin on the other.

What Is Endothelial Dysfunction

The endothelium is an important site of control of vascular functions (2). Vascular endothelium normally decreases vascular tone limits leukocyte adhesion and, thus, inflammatory activity in the vessel wall regulates vascular permeability to nutrients, macromolecules, and leukocytes inhibits platelet adhesion and aggregation by producing prostacyclin, nitric oxide (NO) and ectonucleotidases limits activation of the coagulation cascade by the thrombomodulin-protein C, heparin sulphate-antithrombin and tissue factor-tissue factor pathway inhibitor interactions and regulates fibrinolysis by producing tissue-type plasminogen activator and its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1. NO is a particularly important endothelium-derived mediator because of its vasodilator, anti-platelet, antiproliferative, anti-adhesive, permeability-decreasing, and anti-inflammatory properties.

The Dietary Causes of Inflammation

If you eat the typical North American (or Western) diet, with abundant convenience and fast foods, you likely consume an unbalanced intake of the nutrients that promote inflammation. This imbalance results in large part from massive changes to our food supply over the past half century or so. During this time highly processed pro-inflammatory foods have largely replaced anti-inflammatory fresh and natural foods. The consequence has primed our bodies for chronic, excessive, and self-destructive levels of inflammation.

Chapter The consequences of uncontrolled diabetes

An additional factor that is changing the way diet and chronic disease management is being thought of is new research that has emerged within the past five years showing a link between inflammation and the diseases that are heavily influence by diet. This new research is reinforcing the need to reduce the inflammatory foods in our diets and increase the anti-inflammatory foods.

Anita Fish Oil for Lower Blood Pressure

A friend recommended that Anita consult with Judy A. Hutt, N.D., a naturopathic physician in Tucson, Arizona. After a workup Hutt asked Anita to eat a simple, wholesome diet similar to the Anti-Inflammation Syndrome Diet Plan. Anita began eating more fish, chicken, turkey, and vegetables, while avoiding processed foods, soft drinks, coffee, and dairy products. Hutt also asked her to take several anti-inflammatory supplements, including fish oil capsules (1,000 mg twice daily), as well as ginger, turmeric, and bromelain.

Are there any other factors apart from dressings that can accelerate healing

A 58 year old man, with Type 1 DM that was diagnosed at the age of 24 years, presents with discomfort in his right foot for the previous 15 days. He also observed oedema and redness in the middle of the foot. He denies any trauma. He had initially visited an orthopaedic surgeon, who had diagnosed ligamentous damage. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pain-killers were prescribed together with advice for rest. A small improvement of symptoms was noticed with this treatment. What is the most likely diagnosis

Effects In Nondiabetes Conditions

The thiazolidinediones exert anti-inflammatory effects through several mechanisms including inhibition of proliferation of activated T cells, inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway, inhibition of IL-2 secretion and or the induction of apoptosis (81,104,105). In a study in patients with active ulcerative colitis (106) rosiglitazone treatment was associated with clinical and endoscopic disease remission in several patients.

Adiponectins direct vascular effects

As an anti-inflammatory agent, adiponectin may inhibit inflammatory mediators involved in atherosclerosis, particularly TNF-a. An in vivo study in mice demonstrated that administration of adiponectin decreased serum TNF-a levels (35). Although no significant correlation occurred between adiponectin and serum TNF-a receptors 1 (sTNFR1) and 2 (sTNFR2), which are markers of activation of the TNF-a system, a study in humans found lower sTNFR2 in the highest quartile of circulating adiponectin, suggesting a threshold effect instead of a dose-dependent relationship (78). A different study, however, found a significant negative correlation between plasma adiponectin and TNF-a mRNA expression (13). Besides inhibiting the production of TNF-a, adiponectin may impede TNF-a's involvement in atherosclerosis by reducing TNF-a-induced expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, SE-selectin, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1, that otherwise recruit...

Glycoprotein IlbIIIa inhibitor therapy and PCI in diabetic patients

Abciximab, tirofiban and eptifibitide are platelet glycoprotein (Gp) IIb IIIa integrin receptor blockers that prevent fibrinogen molecules binding to platelets, thus inhibiting thrombus formation. Abciximab is a Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody, whereas tirofiban and eptifibitide are 'small molecule', synthetic, high-affinity inhibitors of this receptor that have a shorter half-life (< 2 h) and are suitable for intravenous administration. Abciximab reduces restenosis through non-platelet effects, which are anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative. More recently, the Is Abciximab a Superior Way to Eliminate Elevated Thrombotic Risk in Diabetics (ISAR-SWEET) enrolled 701 diabetic patients (351 abciximab and 350 patients to placebo) who underwent elective PCI and were administered 600 mg of clopidogrel at least 2 h before the procedure (Mehilli etal., 2004). Of these patients, approximately 29 were insulin-treated, 51 were on oral hypoglycaemic drugs only and 20 were on no diabetic...

Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptora in Vascular Biology Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

A similar but distinct picture as to one described for PPAR-y has emerged for PPAR-a and its potential role in vascular responses. PPAR-a is also now known to be expressed throughout most vascular and inflammatory cells (56). PPAR-a activation has been shown to favorably alter a number of well-established pathways strongly implicated in atherosclerosis. PPAR-a ligands clearly limit the inflammatory cytokine induction of adhesion molecules (43,57). Importantly, this effect is absent when repeated in microvascular cells lacking PPAR-a (58). The salutary benefits of fish oil may derive in part from PPAR-a activation with certain fatty acids limiting adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte adhesion in vivo in wild-type but not PPAR-a-deficient mice (Fig. 1) (59). Interestingly, both omega-3 fatty acids and PPAR-a ligands can also limit expression of tissue factor, a protein found in macrophages and thought to be a major contributor to plaque thrombogenicity (60,61). PPAR-a has also...

Role of Hyperglycaemia

It is clear that intensive glycaemic control has a more modest effect on reducing macrovascular complications than microvascular complications (Stratton etal., 2000). This is clearly because, as reviewed above, the development of CVD in diabetes is multifactorial, and hyperglycaemia is one of many risk factors. Moreover, the presence of elevated risk in the pre-diabetes phase, especially in those with insulin resistance-related features, suggests that development of hyperglycaemia has a lesser role in the macrovascular complications of diabetes. Nevertheless, there is an association -hyperglycaemia is clearly the major insult responsible for excess CVD risk in type 1 diabetes - and several mechanisms may link hyperglycaemia to accelerated vascular risk. Much of the relevant work relates to effects of hyperglycaemia on endothelial cells or function. In vitro experiments looking at normal aortic rings bathed in different concentrations of glucose solutions show that hyperglycaemia...

Thi azoli di nedi ones

In a recent review (Diamant and Heine, 2003) - suggesting that thiazolidinediones have pleiotropic effects that may reduce CVD risk in addition to improving glucose regulation. As well as increasing insulin sensitivity and improving pancreatic beta-cell function, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-gamma (PPAR-7) agonists also exert anti-inflammatory effects, lower blood pressure, reduce the atherogenic lipid profile characteristic of the metabolic syndrome, alter body fat distribution and improve vascular endothelial function (Diamant and Heine, 2003). In the PROactive study in patients with T2D and established vascular disease, pioglitazone significantly reduced the main secondary endpoint, which was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. As expected, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was reduced, and there were reductions in blood pressure, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol and improvements in HDL-cholesterol (Dormandy etal., 2005), but markers...

Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease

EC serve as a metabolically active barrier between the lumen and the vessel wall and play a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis. Normal endothelial function includes regulation of vasomotor tone, homeostasis, leucocyte trafficking and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Endothelial cells elaborates Nitric oxide (NO) which mediates vasodilation, antagonizes thrombosis, and has anti-inflammatory properties and inhibits growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) (McVeigh et al., 1992 Williams et al., 1996 Stehouwer et al., 1997 Loscalzo, 2001 Storey et al., 2001). In a dysfunctional state, apart from the loss of NO secretion, EC release substances such as AII and endothelin. They mediate vasoconstriction, aggravate thrombosis and activate platelets. These substances are proinflammatory and in the absence of NO, promote growth of VSMC and stimulate adhesion molecules like ICAM and VCAM (intracellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules) (Lim et al., 1999 Figure...

Triglyceride and highdensity lipoprotein intervention

The 5-year event rates were correlated highly with insulin resistance 41 , with or without diabetes. The event reduction was significantly greater in those who had insulin resistance and was independent of the HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels, before or after treatment 41 . These analyses suggest the possibility that other antiatherogenic effects of fibrates that are mediated by a variety of mechanisms (eg, PPAR-a agonism, anti-inflammatory effects on vessel wall, fibrinolysis) may contribute to the event reductions that were seen in the VA-HIT.

Epidemiology Of Gi Symptoms In Diabetes

Paradoxically, this study demonstrated a lower prevalence of heartburn among the participants with type 1 diabetes (15). Factors that may contribute to this finding are the possibility of vagal neuropathy reducing the sensation of heartburn and the strong recommendation by diabetologists to patients to avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to protect their renal function.

Management of dyslipidaemia

This raises the point 'the lower the LDLc, the better ' and the issue as to whether there is a threshold LDLc below which no benefit occurs. It has been postulated that the cardiovascular benefits of lowering LDLc may be due, at least in part, to improvement in endothelial dysfunction and the anti-inflammatory properties of statins rather than lipid lowering. In the substudy of CARE, it was shown that pravastatin was associated with improved endothelium dependent vasodilatation and reduction of CRP. Studies in 4S and WOSCOP demonstrated benefit within 6 months of randomization, too soon for the benefit to be explained by regression of atherosclerosis. Acute coronary syndromes arise as a result of rupture of unstable plaque which poses a greater threat than the plaque size or severity of stenosis. The vulnerability of the atherogenic plaque is related to the size of the lipid-rich core, foam cells, inflammatory cells and the thickness of the fibrous cap which is contributed by the...

No of antihypertensive agents Trial Target BP mm Hg

The choice of hypoglycemic therapy (as discussed in detail in another article in this issue) should be influenced by consideration of multiple factors including body mass index, renal function, comorbidities, financial issues, and patient preferences. In general, in the absence of contraindications, overweight individuals should initially be treated with metformin. The TZDs, an important therapeutic drug class, are effective in reducing blood sugar. Their hypoglycemic action is mediated by increasing muscle uptake of glucose, thereby decreasing insulin resistance. They also reduce hepatic glucose production. The primary action of these drugs is mediated through activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-y receptor, a nuclear receptor with a regulatory role in differentiation of cells. This receptor is expressed in adipocytes, vascular tissue, and other cell types. These drugs improve endo-thelial function, reduce intra-abdominal adipose tissue, improve pancreatic...

Adipokines Adiponectin

With greater insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, apparently independent of obesity and other potential confounders (Lindsay etal., 2002). Thus, the development of interventions that raise adiponectin levels has been proposed as a target to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and possibly to prevent CHD. Apart from a potentially protective role in diabetes, adiponectin could protect against cardiovascular disease by other proposed mechanisms. Adiponectin is strongly antiinflammatory acting through the NFkB pathway, down-regulates adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells and enhances lipid clearance in numerous animal models. In line with such observations, exogenous adiponectin administration protects against the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice (Greenberg and Obin, 2006). Such observations suggest that decreased synthesis and release of adiponectin in subjects destined to develop, or with, diabetes could be related to...

Pycnogenol and Grape Seed Extract

Traditionally, Pycnogenol is best known for strengthening blood vessel walls, preventing the leakage of blood and abnormal bruising. It is likely that it achieves these benefits partly by inhibiting inflammation in blood vessel walls. Studies with laboratory animals have determined that it is a powerful anti-inflammatory nutrient. In addition, many physicians have found that Pycnogenol supplements, ranging from 25 to 200 mg daily, can often have dramatic effects in people with rheumatic diseases. Pycnogenol works in part by inhibiting production of peroxides, which stimulate inflammatory activity in white blood cells. In a laboratory experiment, researchers found that Pycnogenol reduced peroxide formation and increased levels of glutathione, an anti-inflammatory anti-oxidant. from those in Pycnogenol. Grape seed extracts have a similar effect on blood vessel walls, and they also possess anti-inflammatory properties. Some of the physicians who use both supplements feel that there are...

Peroxisome Proliferatoractivated Receptor Ppary Agonists And Treatment Of Alzheimers Disease

Drugs of the PPAR-y class have been approved by the FDA to treat T2DM for approximately a decade. Members of this class currently in clinical use include rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. They are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that improve insulin sensitivity. PPAR-y, expressed in adipocytes, regulates adipogenesis and increases the uptake of fatty acids into adipocytes. Thus, PPAR-y agonists reduce the burden of fatty acid uptake for striated muscles, which likely explains their insulin-sensitizing characteristics. PPAR-y agonists also reduce visceral fat stores, which are relocated to subcutaneous stores, and they reduce the expression of TNF-a (89). Furthermore, these compounds produce anti-inflammatory responses in rats and humans (90,91). An interesting characteristic of PPAR-y agonists is that they have little immediate effect on plasma glucose or insulin levels, since they do not stimulate insulin secretion by the pancreas or glucose production by the liver....

Molecular Cell Biology Of Endothelial Dysfunction In Diabetes

High Glucose Insulin Pathway

Growth factors and cytokines TGF-fi, VEGF and TNF-a TGF-fi. TGF- plays a major role in diabetic nephropathy 78 . It mediates glomerular capillary basement thickening and mesangial matrix expansion. Its role in the thickening of capillary basement membranes elsewhere (e.g., in the retina) is less well established. TGF- 1 is increased through hyperglycaemia-induced PKC activation through Amadori-albumin and AGEs through stretch and angiotensin-II and through cytokine activation of endothelial cells. TGF-P1 stimulates the production of matrix components such as type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans in cultured glomerular mesangial cells and epithelial cells is involved in the regulation of glomerular endothelial, epithelial and mesangial proliferation and also has potent anti-inflammatory effects on vascular cells, down-regulating cytokine-induced expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 78 . Insulin. Both type 2 and type 1 diabetes...

Obesity and inflammation

In addition to TNFa and IL-6, the major adipocyte cytokines, three other important proteins, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, need mention. While leptin is known for its function as a satiety signal that inhibits feeding, it has additional roles as a regulator of sexual function and as an immune modulator. It is also proinflammatory and induces platelet aggregation.47-49 Thus, its elevated concentrations may contribute to the pro-inflammatory state of obesity and to atherogenesis in the long term. On the other hand, adiponectin, secreted in abundance by adipocytes in normal subjects, is anti-inflammatory and thus potentially anti-atherogenic. In contrast to leptin, its concentration falls with weight gain and in obesity.50,51 It has been suggested that a low adiponectin concentration may be a marker for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.52 Furthermore, in several experimental models, it has been shown to be protective to the arterial endothelium. Resistin, discovered as a...

Treatment Of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

This section will discuss the pharmacological management of painful neuropathic symptoms. Most of the pharmacological interventions described here have no effect on the natural history of neuropathy which is one of the progressive loss of nerve function. Before considering pharmacological treatment, the initial approach to the management of a patient with symptomatic neuropathy is summarized in Table 4. A large number of therapeutic agents have been used in the management of painful symptoms some of the more commonly used ones are listed in Table 5. Although some have advocated the use of nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs as the first treatment for neuropathy, there is little evidence to support their use. Moreover, these agents should be used with caution in neuropathic patients with diabetes many of whom will have renal impairment as a consequence of nephropathy, a contra indication to nonsteroidal drug usage in most cases.

Effects of PPARy Ligands Independent of Changes in Blood Glucose Levels

Transcription Factors Ppar

Hyperglycemia and the diabetic state induce the production of cytokines (92) and the glomerular and interstitial infiltration with macrophages (109,110). It is, therefore, relevant that both PPAR-y and -a have potent anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages (111,112). IL-ip is one of proinflammatory cytokines produced in response to diverse extracellular stimuli (113). IL-ip, formed by both infiltrating macrophages and activated MCs, is able to stimulate the production of prostaglandins and nitric oxide in MCs (114,115). In addition, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins, is induced in MCs in response to IL-ip (116,117). A potent endogenous PPAR-y ligand, 15dPGJ2, is a natural metabolite derived from prostaglandin D2, which is the most abundant prostaglandin in normal tissues, and has the highest binding affinity to PPAR-y in the J-series prostaglandins (118). Several studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory effect of 15dPGJ2 or TZDs appears to...

W Essential Fatty Acids

A high w-6 w-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, and possibly cancer. Increased dietary intake of linoleic acid leads to oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), platelet aggregation, and interferes with the incorporation of essential fatty acids (EFA) in cell membrane phospholipids. Both w-6 and w-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. w-3 fatty acids have strong anti-inflammatory effects via the suppression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1, TNF-a, and IL-6. w-6 fatty acids tend to be proinflammatory. Because inflammation is at the base of many chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, imbalances in the w-6 -3 ratio plays an important role in the manifestation of disease, particularly in persons with genetic variation, as for example in individuals with genetic variants at the 5-lipoxygenase genes. Increased dietary arachidonic acid significantly enhances...

Biology and Atherosclerosis

Decrease in VCAM-1 expression (49), potentially consistent with some in vitro work and again indicative of possible issues with in vitro vs in vivo findings. Regardless, the decrease in atherosclerosis is fairly consistent and in keeping with early surrogate marker studies in humans. For example, the PPAR-y agonists in clinical use have been shown to lower levels of circulating MMP9 (50,51), replicating the responses seen in vitro with VSMCs (38) and macrophages (37). PPAR-y agonists also decrease circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and levels of CD40 ligand (CD40L), both suggestive of an antiinflammatory effect (50). Several PPAR-y agonists have been found to decrease carotid intimal-medial thickness, a parameter linked with cardiovascular risk (52,53). These studies have all bolstered ongoing clinical trials examining the impact of PPAR ligands on cardiovascular endpoints. Independent of these direct effects on atherosclerosis, it remains possible that PPAR-y agonists...

Etiology Of The Afferent Arteriolar Dilation Underlying Diabetic Hyperfiltration

H2o2 Redutcion

Among the ROS, the vasoactive effects of HOCl are the most poorly characterized. HOCl increases vascular resistance in the perfused rat liver (60). In isolated pulmonary arteries from sheep, HOCl produces vasoconstriction under resting force and vasodilation when the pulmonary arteries are precontracted (61). HOCl also appears capable of impairing NO-dependent vasodilation (62,63). Moreover, a recent report indicates that exposure of rat aortic rings to 20 mM glucose for 5 h sensitizes the vessel to myeloperoxidase-induced endothelial dysfunction (64), an observation that underscores the potential for a vascular effect of HOCl if even only modest renal leukocyte infiltration activation occurs during the early stage of T1D. However, nothing is known about the effects of HOCl on renal hemodynamics, even in inflammatory states in which increased renal myeloperoxidase activity and HOCl-oxidized protein have been documented (65-67). It is interesting to note that immunosuppressant...

Wild Salmon Sources

Wild salmon contains a higher portion of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids compared with farmed salmon. By 2004, labeling laws will require distributors to identify the country of origin and whether the salmon was wild or farmed. For now, all types of Alaskan salmon including king, coho, and sockeye are always wild. You can also order wild salmon online from,, copperriver, and

Cats Claw

Despite a similar name, cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is unrelated to devil's claw. Cat's claw is native to South America and known as una de gato in Peru. Its use as an anti-inflammatory herb dates back hundreds of years, to the Inca civilization. A recent series of experiments detailed the anti-inflammatory properties of cat's claw. Manuel Sandoval-Chacon, Ph.D., and Mark J. S. Miller, Ph.D., of Albany Medical College, New York, conducted cell and animal experiments to investigate the herb's specific biological properties. In one of the experiments, human cells were exposed to peroxynitrite, a powerful free radical that can destroy cells. When the cells also were exposed to cat's claw, they were protected from the peroxynitrite radicals.


This common culinary herb may be one of the overlooked reasons why the traditional Greek and Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Oregano (Origanum vulgare), a member of the mint family, contains a large number of anti-inflammatory flavonoids and polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid, kaempferol, ursolic acid, and apigenin. In this chapter we have explored a variety of vitamins, vitaminlike nutrients, and herbs that have documented anti-inflammatory and healing properties. These nutrients and herbs should be added to the core AntiInflammation Syndrome Diet Plan and supplement recommendations, but obviously you cannot take or use all of them all the time. In the next section we will focus on preventing and reversing some of the most common inflammatory disorders.


Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, a novel adipose-specific protein with putative anti-athrogenic and anti-inflammatory effects, were recently found to be decreased in individuals with obesity, Type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease conditions commonly associated with IRS (298). The degree of hypoadiponec-tinemia is more closely related to the degree of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia than the degree of adiposity and glucose intolerance. Ogawa et al. recently reported that hypoadiponectinemia was associated with visceral fat accumulation and IRS (299).

Pure Scientific

This company markets an expanding line of Advantig brand supplements that preventively target different aspects of inflammation, such as joint, heart, and gastrointestinal health. These are innovative products that address some of the major focal points of inflammatory disorders. For example, the Advantig product for joint health includes many anti-inflammatory nutrients and herbs, including MSM, curcumin, ginseng, quercetin, N-acetylcysteine, green tea, grape seed extract, bromelain,


Selenium is an essential dietary mineral and an essential part of several glutathione peroxidases, powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory enzymes made by the body. Selenium supplements, 200 mcg daily, increase the body's production of glutathione peroxidases. These compounds enhance resistance to infection, which reduces one source of inflammatory reactions and also prevents very dangerous mutations in flu and other viruses. In addition, a human trial at the University of Arizona, Tucson, found that selenium supplements reduced the risk of breast and prostate cancers by about half.

Drugs in the elderly

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs These are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the elderly. They interact with sulphonylureas to cause hypoglycaemia. However, it has been suggested that aspirin may slow the development of retinopathy. It certainly reduces the likelihood of stroke in patients with transient ischaemic attacks. Aspirin also reduces mortality after coronary thrombosis. It can reduce the blood glucose but this is rarely clinically relevant. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should not be used in patients with nephropathy.


Many of the health benefits of garlic (Allium sativum) result from its anti-inflammatory properties. For example, garlic is well known as a mild blood thinner. It works by turning down the activity of thromboxanes, which promote blood clotting. The same thromboxanes are also involved in inflammation. Some studies also have found that garlic supplements can lower blood sugar and cholesterol levels, though not all people seem to benefit equally. It makes sense to use ample garlic in your meals. Its adds tremendous flavor, even if it had no health benefits. Garlic supplements concentrate levels of some of the active constituents, but their advertising can be confusing. The major brands are Kwai, Kyolic, Pure-Gar, and Garlicin. Because each product is produced differently, each contains a slightly different group of compounds. Dosages of 500 to 1,000 mg daily may have an anti-inflammatory effect.

Future trends

In this chapter, we have reviewed the information relating three lipid-soluble nutrients (vitamin E, vitamin D, and coenzyme Q10) to heart disease and type II diabetes, diseases with a clear genetic predisposition. For all three nutrients, there is a clear need for more research in both animal models and in long-term, well-designed clinical studies. Some tentative conclusions can, however, be reached. The three lipid-soluble nutrients reviewed above all have antioxidant properties and antioxidants are, in general, anti-inflammatory. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E or vitamin D is associated with decreased In the case of vitamin E, there should be increased consideration for the non-alpha-tocopherol forms, particularly the potential anti-inflammatory properties of gamma-tocopherol. For CoQ10, the available data strongly supports a role for supplementation (along with conventional therapy) for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Vitamin D is remarkably under-researched...

Blockade of Signal

Imab, have been efficient in preventing acute rejection episodes in clinical trials, but are unable to block other growth factors (183). The fact that all receptors for T-cell growth factor (IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15) share a common yc-chain was exploited in a murine model, in which anti-yc-chain MAbs were administered to islet transplant recipients. This led to induction of T-cell apoptosis and indefinite allogeneic islet graft survival (184). T-cell apoptosis and stable tolerance are linked by the activation of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Apoptotic lymphocytes release anti-inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines (IL-10 and transforming growth factor-P TGF-P ) as they die. Further, phagocytosis by macrophages of apoptotic T-cells carrying their specific antigen leads to presentation of the antigen in a tolerogenic form. Thus, tolerance induced by T-cell apoptosis is stable, because deletion is followed by active regulatory pathways induced by the inhibitory properties of the...


The encouraging preclinical data from the ALS mouse and other models ofneurological disease have prompted a clinical trial combining all three phases. This is expected to begin this spring with a safety and efficacy study of ceftriaxone in the treatment of ALS. The data generated by the consortium represent a phenomenally quick turnaround from initial drug screening (started in early 2002) to actual use in patients. This reflects the major advantage of screening FDA-approved drugs whose safety profiles are already known. Even more encouraging for the Rothstein et al. findings are the excellent safety profiles of the P-lactam antibiotics in humans. Drug toxicity is costly and time-consuming to exclude and, in the end, is often the Achilles' heel that sinks the development of promising new therapeutics. In addition, spotting unwanted side effects is challenging even after undertaking multiple preclinical and clinical trials. This lesson was learned most recently with the realization of...


Circulating concentrations of adiponectin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties, are inversely associated to adiposity levels (76). The decrease in adiponectin concentration with obesity is believed to have negative consequences on whole-body glucose homeostasis (76). Studies suggest that visceral adipose tissue accumulation assessed by computed tomography is an independent predictor of circulating adiponectin levels (77, 78). Omental adipose tissue also seems to be a critical determinant of serum adiponectin levels. Indeed, omental adipocyte adiponectin secretion is primarily reduced in obesity, while subcutaneous adipocyte adiponectin secretion is similar in abdominally obese women (79).


Diabetes-associated hyperglycemia and possibly other metabolic abnormalities may interfere with one or more of these mechanisms. Indeed, hyperglycemia decreases estra-diol-mediated NO production from cultured endothelial cells (116). Additionally, hyperglycemia may lead to increased formation of oxygen-derived free radicals that inactivate endothelium-derived NO and, thus, interfere with endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Further to this, a recent experimental study in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells from diabetic rats showed that iNOS response to inflammatory stimuli is less sensitive to estrogen inhibition probably on account of altered ERa ERP ratio in the diabetic environment (117). It appears from this study that diabetes may also undermine the anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen on vascular wall, and this may provide another possible mechanism underlying the increased risk of macrovascular disease in diabetic premeno-pausal women.

Other interventions

At entry had normal fasting glucose levels, elevated LDL cholesterol and no history of diabetes, myocardial infarction or unstable angina or coronory revascularization at entry. Diabetes was defined by modified ADA criteria, requiring two fasting glucose levels > 7.0 mmol L (126 mg dL) and an increment from baseline of > 2.0 mmol L (36 mg dL) or treatment with diabetes medications. After 4.9 years of follow-up, men randomized to pravastatin had a 30 lower incidence of diabetes (p 0.042) (multivariate hazard ratio 0.7, 0.50-0.99). The authors noted that this could be due to effects on lowering of triglycerides and attendant changes in insulin resistance, or perhaps via anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the statins. Since this was a post-hoc analysis of WOSCOPS, confirmation in a second trial should be completed before fully accepting these results. They provide an important possibility that a widely prescribed drug class may have important effects on diabetes incidence.


The role of insulin in the pathogenesis of vascular disease remains unclear. This is in part due to insulin diverse metabolic actions and in particular its complex interactions with the vasculature (Figure 2.5). In health, insulin has vasodilatory and antiinflammatory properties via the endothelial NO pathway (Schalkwijk and Stehouwer, 2005). Insulin suppresses several pro-inflammatory transcription factors, such as NFkB, Egr-1 and activating protein-1 (AP-1). In the insulin-sensitive individual, insulin also suppresses expression on the leucocyte adhesion molecules and chemoattractant molecules (ICAM-1 and MCP-1) that are required for the migration and absorption of the monocyte into the vessel wall (Dandona etal., 2003). With increasing resistance to insulin, its protective action is lost, thus contributing an inflammatory state and allowing unchecked expression of ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Figure 2.5 This simplified diagram demonstrates the diverse effects of insulin on vasculature. In...

Combination Therapy

In mild-to-moderate hypertension, ACE inhibitors can reduce diastolic blood pressure by 3-7 mmHg and 4-12 mmHg systolic these effects are enhanced with the addition of thiazide diuretics. The primary side effect of ACE inhibitors is cough, which occurs in at least 15 of the patients. This cough does not respond to a reduction in dose or change of ACE inhibitors. Patients with renal dysfunction or those receiving potassium-sparing drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or -blockers may get concomitant hyperkalemia during ACE-inhibitor therapy. Hyperkalemia usually occurs with serum creatinines of greater than 2.5. ACE inhibitors should be used cautiously in patients with creatinines a greater than 2.5, and only when the benefits exceed the risk. Elderly patients are more likely to have increased risk as a result of arteriosclerotic vascular disease, because the glomerular filtration rate may decrease with age (47). A dreaded, rare complication with ACE inhibitors is angioedema,...

The Meglitinides

The hypoglycemic action of the glinides can be potentiated by nonselective P-blockers, salicylates, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, whereas steroids, thyroid hormones, sympathomimetic agents, and thiazide diuretics may reduce the effects of the glinides.

Thorne Research

Thorne is one of the most morally ethical supplement companies, and product quality is exceptionally high. The company sells primarily to physicians, but it also accepts orders from consumers (mail order only). Thorne has a broad line of products, including many anti-inflammatory nutrients. Its MediClear product provides nutritional support for inflammation, allergies, and gastrointestinal integrity. For more information call 208-263-1337 or go to

Herbs and Spices

Medicinal and culinary herbs are rich sources of anti-inflammatory an-tioxidants, especially flavonoids. They also contain trace amounts of natural Cox-2 inhibitors, such as salicylates. Medicinal herbs can be especially potent, while culinary herbs are perhaps less potent but more tasty anti-inflammatory nutrients. Unlike pharmaceutical drugs, which are usually built around a single synthetic molecule, herbs may contain hundreds if not thousands of active principles. The diversity and frequent synergism of these anti-inflammatory compounds lead to a multifaceted biochemical attack on inflammation, instead of overwhelming a single biochemical pathway and causing side effects. In fact, many of the substances in herbs are also found in common fruits and vegetables, which means they have historically played a role in human nutrition and evolution. Indeed, the anti-inflammatory nutrients in fruits, vegetables, and herbs may have historically helped control excessive inflammation.

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