The studies reviewed here use a variety of criteria to define type 2 diabetes. This is inevitable, given the long time period included. It was not possible to identify consistent criteria for all studies. However, the 1985 WHO criteria24 were used as a reference when possible since the majority of modern studies used them. In prevention trials, the development of any clinical diagnosis of diabetes or measured hyperglycemia meeting defined criteria was usually the outcome of the trial.
No studies published to date have tested for autoimmune markers that would identify subjects developing type 1 diabetes. Since over 90% of people developing diabetes over the age of 50 years will have type 2 diabetes30, this is a minor limitation. However, proper diagnosis of the etiological type of diabetes as an outcome will become increasingly important in trials in the future, since specific interventions aimed at defined metabolic and immunological pathways will increasingly be tested.
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Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...