Photographs Ebooks Catalog
To take pictures of what you see under the microscope you will need a photomicrographic camera, which costs 200.00 and up (see Sources). It is easy to use. Remember to label your pictures so you know which slide they came from. Even photographs do not scientifically prove identity of parasite stages, but it is very good evidence. Proof would require that the saliva or urine sample could be cultured and seen to produce the known parasite stages.
It is critically important that outcome measures are properly defined in the context of the clinical situation that is being investigated. This is usually the role of the clinicians involved with the study, but discussion with the statistician is important to ensure that the defined outcomes are both measurable with the required precision and relevant to the condition under consideration. If combinations of outcomes are to be used as the primary or secondary endpoints for a study, these should be clearly defined prior to analysis and not overly heterogeneous. Certain complications of diabetes require special expertise in identifying the appropriate measures. Nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy are examples of complications of diabetes where there is substantial scope for variation in the definition and clarity is required. While it is the role of the clinician to decide on an appropriate index of neuropathy, training of those taking measurements and quality control should be in...
Lineage, rather then degeneration or dedifferentiate. Observation of morphology is the simplest and most direct technique used to follow the cultures of myotubes during proliferation, differentiation and various exposures (Figure 14.7). This can be done without increasing the risk of contamination of the established cultures. It is useful to keep a set of photographs for each cell exposure condition as documentation in case of morphological changes. A set of pictures from representative cultures of myotubes in each study group is recommended.
Similarly, if measurements are to be made by different people in different centres or over a long period of time, steps should be taken to ensure that the procedures are comparable and do not change with time. For example, if outcome measures using grading of samples or photographs are used then training and comparability of graders is essential. In the UKPDS, a stratified sample of 100 sets of photographs was used to compare graders and grading outcome during the study, with Cohen's kappa statistics being reported as a measure of agreement between graders and between grading outcomes over years. Similarly, if blood pressure is being measured with automated machines, these will need to be checked regularly to ensure consistency of measurements, and if staff are measuring blood pressure with a
The DCCT ended the controversy as to whether the degree of metabolic control of type 1 diabetes influences the development of long-term complications (14). The DCCT was a prospective randomized trial that compared the effects of intensive treatment (IT) with those of conventional treatment (CT) on retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in subjects with type 1 diabetes. IT was aimed at producing normoglycemia (preprandial blood glucose levels of 70-120 mg dL, HbA1c 6.0 ) and consisted of MDI (three to four daily daily injections) or CSII, frequent self blood glucose monitoring, monthly clinic visits, and frequent telephone contact with the treatment team. CT was aimed at producing clinical well-being, defined as freedom from symptoms of hyperglycemia and from inordinate hypoglycemia and consisted of no more than two insulin injections per day, urine or blood glucose monitoring, and routine quarterly visits to the clinic. A total of 1441 subjects aged 13-39 yr were studied 726 were in...
Medea, established in 1993, is the descendant of an environmental task force set up by the cia in 1992. The initiative came about in response to a request from then Senator Al Gore of Tennessee that the agency assess what data it could make available to researchers without undermining secrecy. The task force played a key role in persuading the cia and other agencies to declassify the 800,000 photographs taken by
5.1.4 Use of reference photographs to standardize direct observation Use by ancillary health care workers (and physicians) of a reference card or set of photographs in grading the severity of disease has been validated in the care of trachoma and other eye diseases, such as with the WHO trachoma grading card and primary eye care chart. The principle has also been used in numerous randomized controlled trals to achieve consistency in grading the presence and severity of other ocular features, such as lens opacities, corneal and conjunctival findings and optic disc damage (86-88). Use of such reference systems, however, requires careful training and regular monitoring, as performance reliability can vary (86).
In view of the interest in photographic systems, much work has been devoted to specific technical issues (72,75), including the number of photographs needed the fields to be used if the full seven-field set is not used whether photographs should be taken through dilated pupils and who should interpret the photographs.
Screening programs for detecting diabetes-related eye problems are being set up in many districts of the UK. Many are based on examinations being carried out by experienced and specially trained optometrists who are able to check for refractive error, glaucoma and cataract whilst also checking for diabetic retinopathy using the technique of indirect opthalmoscopy through dilated pupils. In other districts, diabetes eye screening is based on taking photographs of the retina using a special camera. The evidence is at present insufficient to make specific recommendation on which is the best method of screening (Department of Health 1999).
Who understands the risk for progression of retinopathy during pregnancy. A dilated eye exam and baseline retinal photographs are necessary since direct ophthalmoscopic examination alone may not identify DR (86). The frequency of eye examinations during pregnancy should be determined by the initial baseline evaluation of retinopathy and the risk factors associated with pregnancy. Currently, it is recommended that ophthalmologic follow-up continues throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period with photocoagulation initiated for significant neovascularization (67, 87).
After curing your own diseases, teach your friends and family how it's done. Families are related and their problems are related. This should make the task easier. Keep a small notebook to become part of the treasured family legacy as much as photographs do. If your aunt, father and brother had diabetes as well as yourself and all were cured after introducing them to this concept and technology, isn't this worthy of notes in your family's history
Use of specific photographic systems with expert interpretation could increase the ability of primaty care providers to detect diabetic retinopathy and it has been shown that the evaluations of trained readers of photographs can match or exceed those of physicians and optometrsts. The advent of digital photography and high-speed internet connections has made use of electronic images feasible, although issues associated with image compression are yet to be resolved. Appropriate follow-up intervals Significant problems have been encountered in ensurng regular follow-up of patients with diabetic retinopathy High rates of follow-up have, however, been reported with the use of vans and trained photographic readers using reference standard photographs to provide immediate feedback to patients. By directly addressing patient convenience, access and feedback, this system might serve as a model for a 'marketing' approach for patient-centred detection of eye disease associated with diabetes.
Effect of oxidized EPA on leukocyte adhesion in mesenteric venules in wild-type and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a-deficient mice. Several lines of in vitro and in vivo evidence suggest omega-3 fatty acids may exert their effects at least in part through PPAR-a activation. In the experiments shown here, wild-type or PPAR-a-deficient mice (PPARa- -) were given an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (Veh) alone native EPA, or oxidized EPA (oxEPA), 1 hour prior to injection of a potent inflammatory stimulus (lipolysacharide). Five hours later, the adhesion of leukocytes to the gut microvasculature in anesthetized mice was examined using intravital microscopy. (A) Adherent leukocytes were determined (n 5-7 for each group of mice). *p 0.03 compared to Veh + LPS (wild-type) and oxidized EPA + LPS (PPAR-a - -). Similar results were seen for leukocyte rolling. (B) Representative photographs of leukocytes interacting with the vessel wall (arrows) in LPS stimulated...
We are indebted to numerous individuals who have generously provided figures, tables, photographs and offered suggestions during proof-reading. We are particularly grateful to colleagues who helped with the preparation of the book including Dr Aresh Anwar (Consultant Physician), Dr Paul O'Hare (Clinical Reader in Medicine), Dr Sailesh Sankar (Consultant Physician), Dr Vinod Patel (Clinical Reader in Medicine), Dr Ponnusamy Saravanan (Associate Clinical Professor in Diabetes), Mr Gurdev Deogan (Senior Podiatrist, University Hospital, Coventry), Dr Noreen Kumar (Foundation Year House Officer, St James's Hospital, Leeds), and Mr Gary Misson (Consultant Ophthalmologist, Warwick Hospital).
Inspection of the ocular background can be done by ophthalmoscopy that enables a qualitative assessment of retinopathy. Alternatively, photography of the ocular background allows a semiquantitative analysis by comparison with standard photographs, or a quantitative computerized analysis of the retinal changes. During the last decades, increasing focus has been directed at a different technique to screen for diabetic retinopathy by examination of the ocular background with fundus photography. This method has a number of advantages. Firstly, the retinal changes are documented so that it is possible to re-evaluate the retinopathy, and the grader can consult other specialists at a later time. Secondly, retinal photography enables a standardized and centralized semiquantitative evaluation of the severity of the changes, and thirdly, photography enables an evaluation of even minimal changes in retinopathy. Fourthly, ophthalmologists need not have primary patient contact. Thus, with...
It is important to measure the size of the ulcer in order to gauge the progress of healing. The minimum measurement should be the diameter of the ulcer in two planes at right-angles. Tracing the perimeter and or photographs are also useful to measure progress. Failure of the ulcer to heal should prompt an investigation as to the effectiveness of any pressure-reduction system, including whether it is being used and whether the patient is able to rest sufficiently at home (Cavanagh, Ulbrecht and Caputo 1998).
While studies on the technical features necessary for best care have been published, no study has provided compete technical specifications for image analysis on the basis of the findings of a large number of observers with approprate numbers of nondiabetes retinal findings. The practical issues of implementation (73) include the number of photographs needed and deciding whether non-mydratic photos are sufficient or whether dilatation is needed. Even in the two fields in which there are image standards, radiology and dermatology, the standards were often determined arbitrary and then tested empirically (74). All publications in telemedicine should, as a matter of course, specify both the technical standards used to capture, process and display the image, the interpretation of the gold standard and the actual methods of fundus image capture. Nevertheless, a recent review suggested that photographic systems are approprate for use in daily care of patents outside the research environment...
Digital Camera and Digital Photography
Compared to film cameras, digital cameras are easy to use, fun and extremely versatile. Every day there’s more features being designed. Whether you have the cheapest model or a high end model, digital cameras can do an endless number of things. Let’s look at how to get the most out of your digital camera.