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FIGURE 11.2 Insulin-induced ROS production and PTP regulation via Nox4 in insulinsensitive cells. This figure illustrates the action of insulin to stimulate receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation which activates the receptor toward its cellular substrate (IRS) proteins. The receptor and IRS tyrosine phosphorylation require cellular PTP activity to return to a basal state. The insulin receptor is coupled to the Nox4 homolog of NADPH oxidase and stimulates the cellular generation of reactive...

Obesity inflammation and insulin resistance

Obesity in non-pregnant adults is associated with subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance.7 The inflammatory and insulin-resistant states arise from changes in cellular and molecular functions and metabolism when adipocytes become enlarged in obese individuals. Perlipin, a phosphoprotein on the surfaces of triglyceride droplets that acts as a gatekeeper preventing lipases from

Uma Singh Sridevi Devaraj and Ishwarlal Jialal contents

Metabolic Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation, Metabolic Syndrome, and Acute Phase Proteins 229 Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, Monocytes, and Metabolic Syndrome 230 Adipose Tissue and Therapeutic Modulation of Inflammation in Metabolic Syndrome 232 Weight Loss, Hypocaloric Diets, Inflammation, and Metabolic Syndrome 232 Pharmacological Therapies with Potential to Prevent or Treat Metabolic Metabolic syndrome MetS is a disorder composed of central adiposity,...

Oxidative stress in premature infants

Hypoxia Premature Infants

Premature infants are probably more prone to oxidative stress than term infants because premature infants very often are exposed to high oxygen concentrations as a result of pulmonary surfactant deficiency. They have lower and less efficient antioxidant defenses and more often are exposed to infections and inflammation resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines activating the production of ROS. Moreover, free iron is found in the plasma and tissues of premature infants at higher...

Farhad Amiri Karim Benkirane and Ernesto L Schiffrin

MAPK Signaling in Vascular ERK1 and ERK2 Signaling, Effects of PPAR-y, and Vascular Remodeling 199 p38 Signaling in Vascular Role of JNK Signaling in Vascular PI3K Signaling Pathway and Vascular Role of Akt PKB Signaling Pathway in Vascular ROS and Vascular Vascular Inflammation and Dual PPAR In both hypertension and diabetes mellitus significant changes that occur in the vasculature affect both large and small arteries and lead to cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke,...

Obesity and inflammation

The above data explain why an insulin-resistant state may be pro-inflammatory. They do not, however, explain the origin of insulin resistance. Mutations of the genes involved in insulin signal transduction provide one approach to the study of this issue in humans and in mice with specific gene knockouts. Such lesions are of interest but are too infrequent to provide a basis for the understanding of the pathogenesis of insulin resistance at large in humans. Thus, some recent observations on the...

Index

Gender comparisons, 10 Adenosine triphosphate, uncoupling protein 2, pancreatic beta cell function beta cell mass, survival, 218-219 insulin secretion, 216-218 Adenosine triphosphate III definition, 5 metabolic syndrome, 6 revised criteria guidelines, 7-9 Adhesion molecules, clinical marker of inflammation, 152 Adipokines, 116-118 Adiponectin clinical marker of inflammation, 147-148 oligomeric composition, 167-176 adipocytes, 168-169 central nervous system effects, 172-173 multimers, biological...

Maternal obesity and inflammation

Studies of inflammation and insulin resistance in pregnancy were performed in non-obese women.1317 Since obesity precipitates inflammatory responses, excessive free fatty acid release, and subsequent insulin-resistant states in non-pregnant individuals, it is reasonable to assume that inflammatory responses and insulin resistance would be enhanced in obese compared to lean pregnant women. Comparisons of metabolic adjustments in lean and obese pregnant women are limited, but the few studies done...

Introduction

The prevalence of obesity among women of reproductive age has reached an alltime high. National survey data show that the number of women with body mass indexes BMIs greater than 30 averaged 31 in white women, 40 in Hispanic women, and 51 in black women in 1999 and 2000.1 Obese women encounter more health problems during pregnancy.1 Common disorders include pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, large-for-gestational age LGA babies, need for cesarean or assisted deliveries, and...

Section I Oxidative Stress Metabolic Syndrome Obesity Diabetes and Uncoupling Proteins

The Metabolic Syndrome The Metabolic Syndrome The Question of Balance between the Pro-Inflammatory Effect of Macronutrients and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Paresh Dandona, Ajay Chaudhuri, Priya Mohanty, and Husam Ghanim The Role of Oxidative Stress in Diseases Associated with Overweight and Ginger L. Milne, Ling Gao, Joshua D. Brooks, and Jason D. Morrow Metabolic Syndrome Due to Early Life Nutritional Modifications 47 Malathi Srinivasan, Paul Mitrani, and Mulchand S. Patel Oxidative Stress...

Antonio Ceriello

Possible Role of Hyperglycemic Spikes in Cardiovascular Diseases 124 Fasting Hyperglycemia and Cardiovascular Post-Prandial Hyperglycemia and Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiological Post-Prandial Hyperglycemia and Cardiovascular Disease Intervention Mechanisms Post-Prandial Hyperglycemia and Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress 128 Increasing evidence suggests that the post-prandial state is a contributing factor to the development of atherosclerosis. In diabetes, the post-prandial phase is...