Rationale for defining metabolic syndrome

In the past decade, sedentary lifestyles, atherogenic high calorie diets, and weight gains have characterized adolescents and adults in the United States and in many countries across the globe.1,2 Indeed, a recent report2 estimated the prevalences of overweight and obese people in the U.S. above 60 and 30 , respectively. This is not a unique burden for the U.S., but reflects a worldwide trend demonstrating an increased prevalence in metabolic risk factors3,4 including visceral obesity, insulin...

Insulin resistance syndrome metabolic perspective

Reaven's original description of the metabolic syndrome consisted of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyper-insulinemia, and dyslipidemia characterized by elevated triglyceride and low HDL concentrations.1 All these features serve as risk factors for atherosclerosis and thus metabolic syndrome constitutes a significant risk for coronary heart disease2-5 (Table 2.1). The features of obesity or overweight and insulin resistance also provide...

Fisoprostanes and overweight and obesity

As discussed above, measurement of plasma or urinary F2-IsoPs allows for an assessment of the effects of diseases on oxidant tone in vivo. In the past decade, quantification of F2-IsoPs has been used to implicate a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of a number of human conditions and diseases. Notably, F2-IsoP levels were shown to be increased in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, aging, certain types of cancers, and, of notable...

Conclusion inflammation hypothesis of metabolic syndrome

In conclusion, the pro-inflammatory state of obesity and metabolic syndrome originates with excessive caloric intake and is probably due to over-nutrition in a majority of patients in the U.S. The pro-inflammatory state induces insulin resistance leading to clinical and biochemical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. This resistance to insulin action further promotes inflammation through increases in lipolysis and plasma FFA concentrations on one hand and interference with the...

Correlation of altered nutritional experience in early life to subsequent high incidence of obesity and metabolic

As indicated, nutritional experiences in utero and or in the immediate post-natal period (infancy) can to a significant degree influence adult metabolic phenotype as these are periods of rapid development of the organism. Because the main goal is survival, an organism adapts to the altered environment by necessary alterations in target tissues that help it tide over the situation but such adaptations lead to unfavorable situations later in life. Both epidemiological data and results from animal...

Erik J Henriksen contents

Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transport Etiology of Insulin Resistance in Obese Zucker Nutriceutical Interventions Conjugated Linoleic Acid and a-Lipoic Acid 292 Effects of CLA in Obese Zucker Effects of ALA in Obese Zucker Interactions of CLA and ALA in Obese Zucker Rats 294 Perspectives and Future Insulin-resistant conditions such as pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes are characterized by defects in the ability of insulin to activate glucose transport in skeletal muscle. One animal...

Insulin resistance inflammatory hypothesis

Which aspect of the inflammatory state results in insulin resistance The first of these potential mechanisms was described by Hotamisligil et al., who demonstrated that TNFa induced serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 which in turn caused the serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. This prevented the normal tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and thus interfered with insulin signal transduction.55 IL-6 and TNFa have recently been shown to induce suppressor of cytokine...

Maternal inflammation insulin resistance and fetal growth

Obese women tend to have big babies irrespective of the amount of weight they gain.26 Also, maternal glucose metabolism and adiposity are highly correlated with fetal growth and body composition.21,27 Although gestational age at birth is the strongest predictor of both birth weight and infant fat-free mass, maternal pregravid BMI is the strongest predictor of infant fat mass (r2 0.066), explaining about 7 of the variance in body fat of newborns. Maternal diabetes is a strong predictor of fetal...

Jong Min Park and AnSik Chung

Obesity Related to Fatty Cell Biology, Energy Expenditure, and Feeding Antiobesity Function through Suppression of Hypothalamic AMPK 277 Regulation of Energy Expenditure and Food Role of Hypothalamic Reduction of Food Intake and Increase of Energy Expenditure via Suppression of Hypothalamic Regulation of Adipocyte Inhibition of Adipocyte Differentiation via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase MAPK Signaling Pathways Mediate Actions of LA on Modulation of Auxiliary Transcription Factors in...

Role of metabolic programming in etiology of obesity epidemic

Population-based evidence and studies of early nutritional experiences in animals suggest that different nutritional insults during fetal or neonatal life may result in increased risks of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome later in life.10 Metabolic programming is a phenomenon in which a stimulus or insult that occurs during a critical period of organogenesis in early life results in permanent alterations in the structures and functions of affected organs and...

Metabolic syndrome definitions

World Health Organization (who) Definition In 1998, the WHO proposed a set of criteria11 to define metabolic syndrome. Its definition required the presence of insulin resistance as a component of the diagnosis. Insulin resistance was defined as the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or, for those with normal fasting glucose levels (< 100 mg dL), glucose uptake below the lowest quartile for the background population under investigation...

Therapeutic targets for reducing oxidant stress in overweight and obese patients

The findings of Block,9 Davi,10 and Keaney11 are not only important with respect to the study of basic mechanisms underlying oxidant stress associated with obesity, but they also have important public health implications in regard to the treatment of obesity-associated disease. The incidence of overweight and obesity is becoming more prevalent in the United States and weight loss programs are often ineffective.2 Thus, the number of persons with diseases associated with obesity is going to be a...

Novel nonmetabolic actions of insulin

The nonmetabolic actions of insulin are readily explained by the recent observations that insulin is an anti-inflammatory hormone and that macronutrient intake is pro-inflammatory. Insulin has been shown to suppress several pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB), early growth response- 1 (Egr-1), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and the corresponding genes they regulate that mediate inflammation.1617 An impairment of the action of insulin due to insulin...

Interventions to reduce maternal inflammation and insulin resistance

Studies in non-pregnant obese individuals provided evidence that changes in lifestyle (weight reduction, changes in dietary fat and fiber, and increased physical activity) reduced the risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese individuals.31 Weight loss is a very effective way to reduce circulating cytokine levels and fasting insulin concentrations in obese women32 but weight loss is not indicated for pregnant women. However, modest reductions in the total amounts gained by obese women are...

Pregnancy an inflammatory insulinresistant state

Profound metabolic adjustments occur during pregnancy to assure an adequate nutrient supply is available to support fetal growth. Since glucose is the preferred fuel of the fetus, maternal metabolism is shifted toward a hyperglycemic state. This ensures facilitated glucose diffusion from maternal circulation across the placenta to the fetus. Maternal hyperglycemia is created by establishing an insulin-resistant state. Maternal insulin resistance increases throughout gestation, reaching a peak...

Info

FIGURE 11.2 Insulin-induced ROS production and PTP regulation via Nox4 in insulinsensitive cells. This figure illustrates the action of insulin to stimulate receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation which activates the receptor toward its cellular substrate (IRS) proteins. The receptor and IRS tyrosine phosphorylation require cellular PTP activity to return to a basal state. The insulin receptor is coupled to the Nox4 homolog of NADPH oxidase and stimulates the cellular generation of reactive...

Obesity inflammation and insulin resistance

Obesity in non-pregnant adults is associated with subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance.7 The inflammatory and insulin-resistant states arise from changes in cellular and molecular functions and metabolism when adipocytes become enlarged in obese individuals. Perlipin, a phosphoprotein on the surfaces of triglyceride droplets that acts as a gatekeeper preventing lipases from

Uma Singh Sridevi Devaraj and Ishwarlal Jialal contents

Metabolic Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation, Metabolic Syndrome, and Acute Phase Proteins 229 Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, Monocytes, and Metabolic Syndrome 230 Adipose Tissue and Therapeutic Modulation of Inflammation in Metabolic Syndrome 232 Weight Loss, Hypocaloric Diets, Inflammation, and Metabolic Syndrome 232 Pharmacological Therapies with Potential to Prevent or Treat Metabolic Metabolic syndrome MetS is a disorder composed of central adiposity,...

Oxidative stress in premature infants

Hypoxia Premature Infants

Premature infants are probably more prone to oxidative stress than term infants because premature infants very often are exposed to high oxygen concentrations as a result of pulmonary surfactant deficiency. They have lower and less efficient antioxidant defenses and more often are exposed to infections and inflammation resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines activating the production of ROS. Moreover, free iron is found in the plasma and tissues of premature infants at higher...

Farhad Amiri Karim Benkirane and Ernesto L Schiffrin

MAPK Signaling in Vascular ERK1 and ERK2 Signaling, Effects of PPAR-y, and Vascular Remodeling 199 p38 Signaling in Vascular Role of JNK Signaling in Vascular PI3K Signaling Pathway and Vascular Role of Akt PKB Signaling Pathway in Vascular ROS and Vascular Vascular Inflammation and Dual PPAR In both hypertension and diabetes mellitus significant changes that occur in the vasculature affect both large and small arteries and lead to cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke,...

Obesity and inflammation

The above data explain why an insulin-resistant state may be pro-inflammatory. They do not, however, explain the origin of insulin resistance. Mutations of the genes involved in insulin signal transduction provide one approach to the study of this issue in humans and in mice with specific gene knockouts. Such lesions are of interest but are too infrequent to provide a basis for the understanding of the pathogenesis of insulin resistance at large in humans. Thus, some recent observations on the...

Index

Gender comparisons, 10 Adenosine triphosphate, uncoupling protein 2, pancreatic beta cell function beta cell mass, survival, 218-219 insulin secretion, 216-218 Adenosine triphosphate III definition, 5 metabolic syndrome, 6 revised criteria guidelines, 7-9 Adhesion molecules, clinical marker of inflammation, 152 Adipokines, 116-118 Adiponectin clinical marker of inflammation, 147-148 oligomeric composition, 167-176 adipocytes, 168-169 central nervous system effects, 172-173 multimers, biological...

Maternal obesity and inflammation

Studies of inflammation and insulin resistance in pregnancy were performed in non-obese women.1317 Since obesity precipitates inflammatory responses, excessive free fatty acid release, and subsequent insulin-resistant states in non-pregnant individuals, it is reasonable to assume that inflammatory responses and insulin resistance would be enhanced in obese compared to lean pregnant women. Comparisons of metabolic adjustments in lean and obese pregnant women are limited, but the few studies done...

Introduction

The prevalence of obesity among women of reproductive age has reached an alltime high. National survey data show that the number of women with body mass indexes BMIs greater than 30 averaged 31 in white women, 40 in Hispanic women, and 51 in black women in 1999 and 2000.1 Obese women encounter more health problems during pregnancy.1 Common disorders include pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, large-for-gestational age LGA babies, need for cesarean or assisted deliveries, and...

Section I Oxidative Stress Metabolic Syndrome Obesity Diabetes and Uncoupling Proteins

The Metabolic Syndrome The Metabolic Syndrome The Question of Balance between the Pro-Inflammatory Effect of Macronutrients and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Paresh Dandona, Ajay Chaudhuri, Priya Mohanty, and Husam Ghanim The Role of Oxidative Stress in Diseases Associated with Overweight and Ginger L. Milne, Ling Gao, Joshua D. Brooks, and Jason D. Morrow Metabolic Syndrome Due to Early Life Nutritional Modifications 47 Malathi Srinivasan, Paul Mitrani, and Mulchand S. Patel Oxidative Stress...

Antonio Ceriello

Possible Role of Hyperglycemic Spikes in Cardiovascular Diseases 124 Fasting Hyperglycemia and Cardiovascular Post-Prandial Hyperglycemia and Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiological Post-Prandial Hyperglycemia and Cardiovascular Disease Intervention Mechanisms Post-Prandial Hyperglycemia and Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress 128 Increasing evidence suggests that the post-prandial state is a contributing factor to the development of atherosclerosis. In diabetes, the post-prandial phase is...