How To Treat Multiple Sclerosis Naturally
In 1995, when Matt was eighteen years old, he suddenly developed severe leg twitches, problems with balance, and an extreme sensitivity to temperature on his left side. One month later, a magnetic resonance imaging scan identified a dozen lesions in his brain and spinal column. The diagnosis was unmistakably multiple sclerosis (MS). Matt envisioned life in a wheelchair and almost shut down and gave up, he says.
Although it is assumed that even mild-to-moderately severe levels of psychological distress have a negative impact on neuropsychological performance, the empirical evidence in diabetes suggests otherwise. The finding that psychological distress, cognitive functioning, and MRI abnormalities do not correlate (10) is in agreement with recent studies in healthy persons (39), as well as with clinical studies of patients with chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis (40) or psychiatric patients (41). Together these studies imply that, unless depression or anxiety levels cross a 'clinical threshold', they do not have a serious impact on cognitive functioning. The relation between depression and diabetes is discussed in more detail in Chapter 14.
Insulin is produced by the beta cells in the pancreas. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly destroys these cells. The body responds to the beta cells as if they were foreign invaders. This is called an autoimmune response. Autoimmune responses also occur in other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, lupus, and thyroid diseases such as hypothy-roidism (Hashimoto's disease) and hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). Researchers do not know exactly why this happens. But for diabetes, researchers have found many factors that appear to be linked to type 1 diabetes. These include genetics, autoantibodies, viruses, cow's milk, and oxygen free radicals.
In muscular dystrophy the solvents, xylene and toluene are seen to accumulate in muscles. These also accumulate in brain and nervous tissue (See Alzheimer's page 269 and multiple sclerosis, page 204). Could it be that these solvents are actually present in the nerves of the muscles
To typical neuropsychological findings in patients with a specific disease or syndrome (e.g., a below-average performance on attention tests in a patient with multiple sclerosis or a below-average performance on executive functioning in an older patient with type 2 diabetes). In addition, the premorbid performance level of a patient also provides information about a possible decline in cognitive function, which can be estimated using crystallized intelligence tests, such as the NART, or education level, professional history, and socioeconomic background.
In Switzerland, however, one group of clinicians reported encountering serious clinical problems with the use of human insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes (Teuscher and Berger, 1987). In particular, they claimed that patients experienced more frequent hypoglycaemia with human insulin, and that warning symptoms were modified by human insulin, as a result of which many patients were unable to detect the onset of hypoglycaemia. A pathologist in the United Kingdom then claimed that the number of patients dying from severe hypoglycaemia had increased since the introduction of human insulin (see Chapter 12). The evidence for this irresponsible statement did not withstand scrutiny, but in the UK anecdotal reports emerged of problems experienced by patients with human insulin, and solicitors acting on behalf of over 400 patients tried to bring a legal action against the insulin manufacturers, alleging that human insulin gave less warning of hypoglycaemia. Additional claims included...
The MHC-antigen complex is an essential component of the thymic selection (or deletion) of lymphocytes and their eventual maturation into CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Both the expression of coreceptors, CD4 and CD8, and costimulatory molecules such as CD80 86 and CD40L, appear to be important in the selection of regulatory T cells and the deletion of potentially autoreactive lymphocytes. Another important mechanism in the determination of central tolerance is the expression and presentation of autoantigens in the thymic cortex and medulla. Animal studies have clearly shown that specialized cells, called medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and dendritic cells (46) are able to transcribe and express proteins usually found in peripheral tissues, such as insulin, thyroglobulin, and myelin basic protein (47-49), which have been associated with autoimmune T1DM, thyroiditis and multiple sclerosis, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative expression of these proteins by mTECs appear to,...
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