Info

twice-daily 35 insulin resistance syndrome 2, 10-12 definition 12

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) see type 1 diabetes insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 77

insulinoma 25

insulitis 10

insurance issues 115

interferon (IFN)y 10

interleukin (IL)-2 10

islet of Langerhans

Coxsackie B viral infection (LM) 30

cystic fibrosis, pancreas (LM) 28

glucagon immunostained (LM) 24

hemochromatosis, hemosiderin deposits (LM) 29

insulin immunostained (LM) 24

insulin storage granules (EM) 25

insulitis hyperexpression (LM) 28

normal pancreas (EM) 25

normal pancreas (LM) 24

somatostatin immunostained 25

type 1 DM

P-cells (LM) 26 P-cell loss (LM) 27 infiltrate (LM) 26 lymphocyte infiltration (LM) 27 type 2 DM

amyloid deposition (LM) 29 islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) 11 islet cell antibodies (ICA) 10, 28

islet cell transplantation 41, 117, 119

jaundice, neonatal 111

ketoacidosis 64

biomechanical features 66 causes of death 67 ketosis, in surgery 61 Klinefelter's syndrome 2, 12, 19

laser photocoagulation 70, 84 latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) 2 late-onset diabetes mellitus 2 immune-mediated type 1 2 lifestyle change 14 lipid hypertrophy 52, 53 liver cirrhosis 76-7 glucose output 11 glucose production 22 hepatic nuclear factors (HFNs) 2, 11-12 hepatic portal vein, isolated islet administration 119 low-density lipoprotein (LDL) 109-10

macrophages 10

macrosomic babies 108, 111

maculopathy 69-70

maggot debridement, ulcer 75

major histocompatibility complex (MHC) 9

antigens 10 male excess, type 1 1 malignant otitis externa 105 maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) 2, 11-12 symptoms 12 meglitinides 39

metabolic syndrome see insulin resistance syndrome metformin 39, 41, 77

migratory necrolytic erythema 77,103

monitoring systems, blood glucose 37, 56, 117

mumps 10, 12

myotonic dystrophy 20

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney

Diseases (NIDDK), USA trials 13 necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum 77, 101 nephropathy 70-1

neurogenic differentiation factor (NEUROD) 1 11 neuropathy acute 72

autonomic 72-3, 87 chronic insidious sensory 72 classification 86

mononeuropathy 72 pathogenesis 71-2 prevalence 71 proximal motor 72 third cranial nerve palsy 87 treatment 73 ulnar 87 nitrosamines 10

non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) 76-7 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) see type 2 diabetes obesity body mass index (BMI) 12,16 childhood 21 energy expenditure 13 epidemic 12 food consumption 12 sequelae 13 oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 1-2, 112 orlistat 34, 40 osteomyelitis 74, 75, 94, 99 foot 74, 75, 94 spinal 99 osteoporosis 94, 99

pancreas calcification 31 cancer 2

cancer (CT scan) 31 hemochromatosis 29 pancreatic duct, normal 30 transplantation 41-2, 117 trauma 2

see also P-cell; islet of Langerhans pancreatectomy 2 pancreatitis 2 patient education 37-8 peripheral vascular disease 73, 74, 97, 98 peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)

agonists 40, 110, 117 pheochromocytoma 2 phosphodiesterase inhibitors 76 plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) 73 platelet-derived growth factor 75 polycythemia, neonatal 111 Prader-Willi syndrome 16 pramlintide 117 prandial glucose regulators 39 pravastatin 110 pregnancy 2, 111-13

Caesarean section rates 111-12 haemoglobin (HbA1c) 111

insulin regimes 111-12 neonatal problems 112 perinatal problems 111 pre-eclampsia 112 ultrasound scans 112

see also gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevention trials, pharmacological ACT NOW (pioglitazone) 14 DREAM (ramipril and rosiglitazone) 14 NAVIGATOR (nateglinide and valsartan) 14 ORIGIN (insulin glargine) 14 proteinuria 70 puberty 60

pulmonary delivery, inhaled insulin delivery 117

quality of life issues 115

Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome 21

random plasma glucose concentration 1

Reaven's syndrome see insulin resistance syndrome a-receptor blockers 74

relative insulin deficiency 2

renal artery stenosis 73 failure 71, 92 glomerulopathy 91 transplantation 71 retinopathy 69-70, 80-5 background 80 end-stage 84 exudative 82 peripheral proliferative 83 serious 81 severe 81 rimonabant 118 rosuvastatin 110 rubella, congenital 12

Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S Trial) 109

sibutramine 40

sildenafil 76, 89

simvastatin 109, 110

skin disorders 77, 100

acanthosis nigricans 77, 104

balanitis 104

bullae 77, 103

candidiasis 104

dermopathy 77, 102

eruptive xanthomata 77, 105, 106

granuloma annulare 102

migratory necrolytic erythema 77,103

necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum 77, 101

severe bacterial infection 105

uncommon 77 vitiligo 77, 100 skin graft bi-layered bioengineered skin substitute 75 cultured human dermis 75 smoking 34 sodium restriction 33 Staphylococcus aureus 74 statin therapy 109-10

lipid-lowering combination therapy statin/ezetimibe 109-10 statin/fibrate 109-10 steatohepatitis 76-7 Streptococcus pyogenes 74

Study to Prevent Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes

(STOP-NIDDM) Trial, multinational 14 subcutaneously implanted continuous monitoring system, blood glucose 37, 56, 117 sulfonylureas 39, 41, 63 surgery 61-2

insulin regimens 62 perioperative complications 61 postoperative infection 61 syndrome X see insulin resistance syndrome

T lymphocytes 9-10 tachycardia 73 tadalafil 76 thiazide 2

thiazolidinediones 14, 39-40 transplantation islet cell 41, 117, 119 renal 71

simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplants (SPKs) 41-2

whole-pancreas 41, 117 triglycerides 109-10 truncal radiculopathy 72 tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a 10 Turner's syndrome 2, 12, 20 type 1 diabetes classification 2-3 dietary advice 57 epidemiology 3 ethnic variation 9 incidence 1 male excess 1, 3

pathogenesis 9-10 pre-insulin treatment 4 prevention 13 surgery 61 treatment dietary 33 insulin 35-6 viral associations 30 type 2 diabetes childhood 2 classification 2-3 dietary advice 57 dietary treatment 34 epidemiology 3 incidence 1 pathogenesis 10-11 prevention 13-14 surgery 62 treatment drugs 39-40 HbA1c targets 38 insulin 40

United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) 38, 69

Blood Pressure Control Study 74 HbA1c target 38 ursodeoxycholic acid 77

vardenafil 76

very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) 109 Veterans Affairs HDL Intervention Trial (VA-HIT) 109 viral associations adenovirus 12 P-cells, viral infection 9-10 Coxsackie B virus 10, 12 cytomegalovirus 10, 12 Epstein-Barr virus 10 type 1 diabetes 30 vitiligo 77, 100

weight loss 14,34 Wolfram's syndrome 12 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria 1 GDM criteria 112,113

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