pared with whites (11.2/100,000). The 1990 to 1994 incidence for African Americans was two- and threefold higher than that reported in 1985 to 1989 and 1980 to 1984, respectively. Such findings may be explained by the potential inclusion of non-T1DM cases in this age group [29,30]. Among black adolescents with DM, 42% had no evidence of autoantibodies compared with only 10% of white adolescents, which further suggests the presence of a non-autoimmune type of diabetes in blacks .
In the United States, T2DM seems to account for 8% to 45% of all patients with DM and its prevalence seems to be on the rise. In the Cincinnati, Ohio experience, the annual incidence of T2DM in the 10- to 19-year-old age group jumped from 0.7 per 100,000 in 1982 to 7.2 per 100,000 in 1994. Among 0- to 19-year-old patients, T2DM accounted for 2% to 4% of all new cases of diabetes in the years 1982 to 1992 but accounted for 16% of new cases in 1994 . In Arkansas Children's Hospital, just 1 to 3 patients were diagnosed annually with T2DM between 1988 and 1991, but between 1992 and 1995, the annual figure rose to 6 to 17 . A report from Charleston, South Carolina stated that of 97 African Americans diagnosed with diabetes in 1997, 46% had T2DM . In San Diego, California at two referral hospitals, 8% of all new diabetic cases identified between 1993 and 1994 were T2DM . In Ventura, California, T2DM accounted for 45% of the incidence cases of diabetes between the years 1990 and 1994 . In San Antonio, Texas, 18% of new cases diagnosed between 1990 and 1997 involved T2DM . Another study in Florida school children showed an increase from 8.4% to 23.7% between the years 1994 and 1998 .
Outside the United States, clinic-based studies also have evaluated the percentage of diabetes cases labeled as T2DM. In Bangkok, Thailand, newly diagnosed cases of T2DM in children increased from 5% between 1986 and 1995 to 17.9% between 1996 and 1999 . In Europe, however, studies from Austria, Germany, and Sweden have reported that only 0.5% of children with diabetes have been classified as having T2DM [8,10]. In Paris, France, 1% of children aged 1 to 16 years have been diagnosed with T2DM during 1993 to 1998 . In the United Kingdom, the crude minimum prevalence of T2DM under age 16 years was reported as 0.21/100 000 based on a cross-sectional survey of all pediatric diabetes centers . In conclusion, since its initial description approximately 26 years ago, cases of T2DM in childhood and adolescence have been increasing. Further studies are needed, especially population-based, to assess the whole impact of the disease.
Was this article helpful?
Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...