Epidemiology

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By the turn of the century it was reported that some children presented with a mild and slowly progressive type of the disease unlike T1DM [20]. It was not until 1979, however, that recognition of T2DM in children and adolescents emerged, as described by a series of six obese Pima Indian children with strong parental history of T2DM [21]. Since then, T2DM has been reported in children from all over the world.

Currently, almost all information on the epidemiology of youth T2DM in the literature is compiled from case reports of tertiary diabetes clinics. Except in the native populations of the United States, Canada, Japan, and Taiwan, there are no population-based studies of childhood T2DM (Table 1) [22-28]. Based on population-based registries that monitor the epidemiology of T1DM, rates of T1DM are typically lower in African-American children than in white children. Data from the Allegheny County Registry from Pennsylvania showed for the first time a higher incidence of diabetes for African Americans (17.6/100,000) than for whites (16.5/100,000), which was explained by a threefold higher diabetes incidence in 15- to 19-year-old African Americans (30.7/100,000) com-

Table 1

Selected estimates of the magnitude of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents in population-based studies

Table 1

Selected estimates of the magnitude of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents in population-based studies

Study

Years

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