Stacking Insulin and Overaggressive Treatment of High Glucose Levels

Some people with diabetes do not like their glucose levels to be high, and they treat every high glucose level aggressively. These individuals who stack their insulin that is, give another dose of insulin before the first injection has had its full action can leave themselves open to hypoglycemia. A common mistake is to give insulin before a meal and then check the glucose level again an hour or two later and give additional insulin without realizing that the premeal insulin is still getting...

Side Effects

The main side effects of these medicines are weight gain and fluid retention. The weight gain tends to be around the abdomen. Despite the weight gain, the glucose levels generally fall. Fluid retention can cause ankle swelling, and in individuals with heart disease these medicines can cause heart failure. The symptoms of heart failure include swelling of the legs and shortness of breath on exertion. The fluid retention is more of a problem if you are also on insulin. The FDA has emphasized that...

Insulin Preparations Available in the United States

Regular insulin Insulin lispro Humalog Insulin aspart Novolog Insulin glulisine Apidra 70 percent NPH 30 percent regular 70 30 insulin 50 percent NPH 50 percent regular 50 50 insulin 75 percent NPL 25 percent insulin lispro Humalog Mix 75 25 50 percent NPL 50 percent insulin lispro Humalog Mix 50 50 70 percent insulin aspart protamine 30 percent insulin aspart Novolog Mix 70 30 Exubera 1 mg and 3 mg blister packets of powdered regular insulin

What Does Hypoglycemia Feel Like

The first time a person with diabetes gets a low glucose reaction usually at a glucose level of about 54 mg dl, he or she usually gets shaky, sweaty, and hungry. Other symptoms include anxiety and nausea. These are very much like the symptoms you get when you are extremely nervous and are called autonomic symptoms. It's your body's way of telling you that your glucose is low and you should eat. If these autonomic symptoms are ignored, the glucose levels fall into a range where the brain is...

Chapter

Effects of repeated hypoglycemia on cognitive function a psy-chometrically validated reanalysis of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial data. Diabetes Care 1999 Aug 22 8 1273-77. Briscoe VJ, Davis SN. Hypoglycemia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Management Clinical Diabetes 2006 24 115-21. de Galan BE, Schouwenberg BJ, Tack CJ, Smits P. Pathophysiology and management of recurrent hypoglycaemia and hypoglycaemia unawareness in...

Info

Depends on the inheritance pattern of the susceptible immune genes. Source Adapted from Atkinson MA, Maclaren NK. The pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. NEngl J Med 1994 331 1428-36. When the beta cells are attacked by the immune system, the body produces four types of antibodies against the proteins made by the beta cells glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD antibody, islet cell antibody ICA , ICA 512 antibody, and insulin antibody. Your doctor can measure these autoantibodies if...

Working with Small Insulin Doses

Giving the small doses of insulin can be challenging. Eli Lilly and Novo Nordisk make pens that will deliver in half units, but the minimum dose is 1 unit. Becton, Dickinson and Company makes an ultrafine short-needle insulin syringe with half-unit markings. You can also ask your pharmacy to dilute the insulin. Eli Lilly makes a diluent for NPH, regular, and Humalog insulin. Similarly, Novo Nordisk makes a diluent for Novolin regular, and this can also be used for NovoLog. For U50 insulin, the...

Diabetes

One of the problems with diabetes is that the person with the disease usually feels fine and there are no symptoms even when the glucose levels are in the 100 to 200 mg dl range. Therefore, it is easy to ignore the diabetes. Eventually, there are symptoms, but often, they are due to diabetes-related complications. It is therefore important for people with diabetes to understand the consequences of poor glucose control and to make the effort to control the diabetes even when they feel well. You...

Gestational Diabetes And Risk For Type Nongestational Diabetes

If you have gestational diabetes, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future is 5 to 50 percent. Therefore, you should have a two-hour 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test OGTT six to ten weeks after delivery. With tight glucose control and careful management of diabetes complications, women with diabetes can have healthy babies Optimal glucose control before conception and early in pregnancy reduces the risk of fetal malformations. Later in pregnancy, tight glucose control reduces...

Panax Quinquefolius American Ginseng

Several small studies reported an improvement in fasting glucose and HbA1c with 3 grams of American ginseng. The studies are of limited duration eight weeks . Reported side effects of American ginseng include insomnia, high blood pressure, and anxiety. The ADA review found that there was inadequate evidence to support use of herbal medicine or mineral supplements in the treatment of diabetes. If you decide to use them, buy your supplements from reputable suppliers those with USP United States...