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Age group (years)

Figure 4.1 Projected numbers of people (thousands) with diabetes from 2000 to 2030 by region, and overall global rise in prevalence by age band. Reproduced with permission from Wild S, Roglic G, Green A et al. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047-1053.

diabetes itself (Danaei etal. 2006). The cardiovascular risk rises with increasing glycaemia from a level well below the threshold used to diagnose diabetes (Table 4.1). This puts raised blood glucose, whether or not high enough to be called diabetes, among the five top determinants of worldwide mortality, accounting for 3.16 million deaths a year (Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group 2002) (Figure 4.4).

The tip of the iceberg

In industrialised societies, and increasingly in the developing world, for every person in the community with diabetes there are many with the metabolic syndrome (Box 4.1) or other forms of'pre-diabetes'. A quarter of the world's adults are estimated to have the metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation

Figure 4.2 Childhood obesity is increasing the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in young people.

Figure 4.3 Beta cell function in the natural history of T2DM - data from UKPDS. Reproduced with permission from Holman R. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1998;40(Suppl. 1):S21-S25.
Table 4.1 Relative risk of ischaemic heart disease and stroke for 1 mmol/l increase in fasting plasma glucose, by age group (after adjustment for confounding and regression dilution bias). Reproduced with permission from Danaei G, Lawes CMM, Vander Hoorn S, etal. Lancet 2006;368:1651-9.
Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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