Obesity and Nutritional Intake

The Fat Cell Killer Genius

Best Weight Loss Programs That Work

Get Instant Access

Obesity, in general, is associated with decreased adiponectin expression in adipose tissue and plasma levels (7,13). In both men and women, overall obesity, assessed by parameters such as body mass index (BMI) and fat mass, is negatively correlated to adiponectin, although prolonged weight reduction leads to increased adiponectin levels (7,14-17). Nutritional intake does not seem to explain this relationship. Although fasting decreases adiponectin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels in mice, serum levels remain unchanged (18). In humans, short-term fasting also does not change plasma levels of adiponectin, although prolonged caloric restriction does result in weight loss and increased adiponectin levels (14,19). Additionally, daily caloric intake, macronutrient intake, or a high-fat meal is not related to any immediate change in circulating adiponectin levels in humans except possibly in obese individuals (20-22).

Instead of food intake, the distribution of adipose tissue may be more closely associated with adiponectin. There is a strong inverse correlation between adiponectin levels and visceral or central fat, compared to subcutaneous fat (9,19). In contrast to subcutaneous adipocytes, human omental adipose tissue had a significant negative correlation with BMI, and only it responded to insulin and PPAR-a agonist administration with increased adiponectin production (23). These findings suggest that adipose tissue, particularly in the visceral distribution, may have an inhibitory mechanism for its own production of adiponectin, perhaps mediated by other factors produced by fat cells such as TNF-a (13).

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Gaining Weight 101

Gaining Weight 101

Find out why long exhausting workouts may do more harm than good. Most of the body-building workout and diet regimens out there are designed for the guys that gain muscle and fat easily. They focus on eating less and working out more in order to cut the excess fat from their bodies while adding needed muscle tone.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment