Insulin resistance

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Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been shown to increase the risk of CVDs or atherosclerosis in diabetic states, and being a potential risk factor in the development of hypertension, not only in diabetic patients but also in the general population. The mechanism by which hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance increases the risk of atherosclerosis is still unclear. Many theories have been suggested, including insulin-induced salt retention, directly enhancing proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) (22,23), and indirectly regulating of endothelial cell homeostasis via the alteration of growth factors and cytokines in cells share extensive interaction with endothelial cells, such examples include fibroblasts, epithelial cells, VSMCs, and cardiomyocytes (24-26).

We have characterized insulin receptors on the vascular cells and reported that they are identical to those in the nonvascular cells with respect to binding, structure, and tyrosine

Table 1

Alterations of Cell Numbers Observed in Various Vascular Tissues in Diabetes

Table 1

Alterations of Cell Numbers Observed in Various Vascular Tissues in Diabetes

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Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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