Numerous animal and clinical studies have demonstrated that hypertension reduces endothelium-dependent relaxation (149-153). Two studies have shown that basal production or release of NO is decreased in hypertensive patients (63,154). The possible mechanisms underlying the endothelial vasodilator dysfunction associated with hypertension include L-arginine deficiency (155), decreased muscarinic receptor function (156,157) abnormalities in signal transduction (158), or NO inactivation by oxygen-derived free radicals (159-162).
As with dyslipidemia, hypertension is frequently associated with DM, making the relative contribution of either risk factor to the endothelial dysfunction found in the hypertensive diabetic person difficult to determine. Epidemiological studies have shown an association among obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension (163,164). Further research has found that even lean individuals with essential hypertension are frequently insulin resistant. This finding led investigators to propose that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension.
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Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...