Immune System Boosters

How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

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The Immunity Crisis in America

Have you ever wondered WHY you get sick from different things, sometimes seemingly for no reason? Haven't you ever wished that you could find some way to stop yourself from getting sick and stay healthy all the time? Well, that might be more possible than you thought at first! Your immune system is an odd system, that many scientists are still struggling to understand. However, there have been some amazing breakthroughs! Once you get access to this detailed and helpful book, you will be able to find REAL and Applicable ways to improve your immune system and keep yourself from getting sick all of the time. This book teaches you everything that you never learned about your immune system Start learning what you can Really do to improve your immune system's health and keep your body healthier for longer! It's not hard at all Get started today!

Immunity Crisis Summary

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The Inflammation Syndrome Connection

Asthma usually begins when the immune system becomes sensitized to an allergen, which may be a food, tobacco, proteins from cockroaches, or dander from pets. The immune system responds whether the trigger is a real threat or not, releasing a variety of inflammatory molecules. An upper respiratory tract reaction may cause little more than a runny nose (rhinitis), but asthma develops when the bronchi or bronchioles (which branch out from the bronchi) start overreacting to inflammatory molecules. One relationship is clear the increase in asthma is related to the overall increase in allergies that is, inflammatory reactions to generally innocuous substances.

Islet Transplantation

Scientists believe that transplanting islet cells is less dangerous than transplanting the whole pancreas. They have developed ways to prepare islet cells from the pancreas. Researchers in Canada developed a method of transplanting islets that uses a larger number of islet cells and a new type of drug therapy to suppress the immune system. Islet cell transplantation is now being done in a few specialty centers in the United States. But, immune rejection of islet cells is an even bigger problem than in pancreas transplants. Some scientists surround the cells in a protective membrane before transplanting them. Other scientists are trying to change the cells before transplanting them to trick the immune system into thinking they are part of the body. Sometimes the islet cells are exposed to cold temperatures or ultraviolet light, so that the cells of the immune system cannot recognize the foreign antigens on the surface of the transplanted cells. Another method is to transplant the islet...

The Dietary Causes of Inflammation

How do foods affect inflammation The foods you eat provide the building blocks of your body and, of particular importance, your immune system, which regulates inflammation. Your immune system consists of dozens of specialized types of cells and molecules that constantly monitor your body for anything foreign or unusual. To envision this, it might help to picture how a taut, silken web alerts its resident spider to the presence of an insect. When a fly touches some threads in the web the resulting vibrations are transmitted and amplified throughout the web. These vibrations alert the spider, which moves in for the kill. The cells of the immune system operate much like the interlocking filaments of the spider web. An immune cell senses the presence of an intruder (such as infectious bacteria or some other material, such as a dam aged or dead cell) that does not belong in the body. An immune cell shares information about the peculiarity with other immune cells. Together they coordinate a...

The Anti Inflammation Syndrome Step Identify and Avoid Food Allergens

Food allergies or allergylike food sensitivities can rev up the immune system and contribute to chronic inflammation. It is relatively easy and inexpensive to obtain a food allergy panel using a simple blood test. Indeed, In Going Against the Grain, nutritionist Melissa Diane Smith writes that as many as half of Americans have some degree of gluten intolerance. The gut damage from gluten can predispose people to numerous other food allergies. A damaged, or leaky, gut can allow undigested food proteins to enter the bloodstream, where they trigger an immune response. The most common sources of gluten are wheat, rye, barley, and oats.

Hollowfiber Technique

To our disappointment, Lafferty's method for destroying passenger leukocytes did not work for islets the high levels of oxygen destroyed the hormone-producing cells. But, after much trial and error, in 1979 my colleague Joseph M. Davie and I devised a cultur-ing technique that harmed only the passenger cells. When we placed approximately 1,500 treated islets from one rat strain into the portal vein of another strain and gave the recipients a single injection of a compound that temporarily inactivated their immune system, rejection was prevented completely. What is more, the same basic procedure prevented rejection of islets transplanted across species from rat to mouse. Many other approaches for altering or destroying passenger leukocytes in islets were then developed in our laboratory and others.

Pancreas Transplantation

The downside to pancreas transplantation is that the body treats the new pancreas as foreign. The immune system attacks the transplanted pancreas. People with pancreas transplants must take powerful immunosuppressant drugs to prevent rejection of the new pancreas. Drugs that suppress the immune system can lower resistance to other diseases such as cancer and bacterial and viral infections. Pancreas transplantation is most often done when a patient is also receiving a new kidney. The pancreas transplant adds little further risk and offers big benefits. However, transplant surgery is risky. Each person needs to carefully weigh the potential benefits and the risks.

Of Diabetes Genes and Environment

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system that normally protects the body against infections goes wrong and attacks the beta cells that make insulin. There are genetic factors and environmental factors that cause the immune system to do this. Several genes located in a region of the human genome called human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Two of the genes (called DR and DQ) code for proteins that help the immune system recognize foreign proteins such as those that make up viruses and bacteria. There are many forms of these two genes, and the ones that increase the individual's susceptibility to type 1 diabetes are called DR3.DQ2 and DR4.DQ8. The insulin gene. It has been shown that insulin teaches the immune system not to react against the beta cells this teaching process is referred to as inducing tolerance. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely

The Importance Of Achieving Good Glycaemic Control In Hospital

Out of hospital the focus for good glycaemic control is to minimise long-term microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications. In hospital, over the short term, the rationale for good glycaemic control is to ensure a metabolic environment that promotes the best possible immune activity and wound healing. Hyperglycaemia has a detrimental effect on the immune system, adversely affecting chemotaxis, granulocyte adhesion, phagocytosis, intra-cellular killing and complement function (5,6). The increased risk of infection in diabetic patients may well be explained by the operation of some or all of these effects. An increase in the rate and or severity of infection is likely to contribute to the increased length of stay of diabetic patients in hospital (7). In unconscious patients or those with difficult-to-assess neurological function, there is a real danger of unrecognised hypoglycaemia and the benefits of tight control need to be balanced against this risk.

Recipes for Natural Body Products

Even if you have dry skin, difficult hair or some other unique requirement, just pure borax will satisfy these needs. A part of every skin problem is due to the toxic elements found in the soaps themselves. For instance aluminum is commonly added as a skin moisturizer. It does this by impregnating the skin and attracting water, giving the illusion of moist skin. In fact you simply have moist aluminum stuck in your skin which your immune system must remove. While borax won't directly heal your skin or complexion, it does replace the agents that are causing damage, so that healing can occur.

Not all fats are villains in fact we need good fats for good health

As strange as it sounds, eating fat can actually help you lose weight. Not only that, your memory and your immune system will benefit from eating fat. It is an extremely bad idea to eliminate fat completely from your diet. Good fats are absolutely essential. These good fats come from things like Enova Oil, canola oil, extra virgin olive oil, flax seed, almonds, walnuts and cold-water fish. Eating the right kind of fat and getting rid of the wrong kind is what is needed.

What Are Inhalant Allergies

Inhalant allergies are immune system overreactions (hypersensitivities) to any type of otherwise innocuous substances, such as pollens, molds, and cat dander. These types of allergies typically elevate blood levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), which is part of the immune response. Pollen allergies tend to be seasonal, causing reactions only when a specific grass or tree blooms, though some people react to many different pollens throughout much of the year. The most common symptom is rhinitis, which, in practical terms, means nasal inflammation, an itchy and runny nose, sneezing, and nasal congestion.

Type and Type Diabetes

Even with their shared features, the two types of diabetes are quite different in many respects. Type 1 diabetes characteristically occurs in children and young adults (it was once called juvenile-onset diabetes) and requires treatment with insulin for survival (type 1 also used to be called insulin-dependent diabetes). In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system attacks the pancreas. This autoimmune attack destroys the beta cells, leaving them unable to make insulin. The causes of type 1 diabetes are not fully understood. We don't know what triggers the immune system to start attacking the pancreas, although certain inherited genes can make you more vulnerable. However we do know that type 1 diabetes is not primarily caused by lifestyle, being overweight, or obesity however, controlling body weight and exercising regularly are important parts of the treatment. Maintaining blood-sugar levels as close to the nondiabetic range as possible is critical to avoid long-term complications.

Prevention of Type Diabetes

By testing relatives of people with type 1 diabetes for autoanti-bodies, researchers can often predict who is likely to develop the disease. This could be especially useful as new therapies emerge, because they can be started before damage to the pancreas is too extensive. For example, it was thought that by identifying people who are likely to develop type 1 diabetes at an early stage, researchers might be able to treat them with insulin or drugs that suppress the immune system (anti-rejection medications) and thus prevent the T cells from destroying the beta cells in the pancreas. Recent studies do not support that this is possible at this time.

Insulin Resistance and Cancer

The cycle of inflammatory chemistry that is activated through chronic stress and cortisol release, leaky gut, environmental stressors (such as chemical preservatives, plastics, and heavy metals), obesity, thyroid dysfunction, and immune system imbalances causes chronic imbalances in blood glucose homeostatis, eventually lead to type 2 diabetes. This progression to diabetes and its metabolic consequences has also been linked in clinical studies with the development of cancer 7, 8 . Researchers have known for decades that cancer cells consume more glucose than normal cells. All cells use both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis pathways for energy (ATP) but rely overwhelmingly on oxidative phosphorylation, switching to glycolysis at times of oxygen deprivation. Cancer cells, however, have been reported to exhibit increased glycol-ysis due in part to mitochondrial respiration injury and hypoxia. A shift in energy production from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis - the...

How does stress affect the body

So, when you experience stress, your body prepares itself physiologically to counter any threat to its survival - the 'fight or flight' response. Stress may lead to physical problems when you cannot respond in a way that eliminates it, the stress continues unabated and so do the symptoms. An inability to do anything to relieve the stress may cause even more stress, creating a vicious circle and this can take its toll on your body. In fact, many researchers believe that prolonged stress puts such a strain on your body that your immune system may ultimately break down, making your body more vulnerable to a number of diseases.

Georgia Allergies and Sinusitis

Physicians and patients alike routinely confuse the causes of inflammation with its triggers. The causes of inflammation are often related to dietary imbalances or deficiencies, which prime the immune system for a powerful and chronic inflammatory reaction. In contrast, inflammation triggers are the events that precipitate a specific inflammatory response after the body is already primed for an overreaction. Although it is not the same as correcting the causes of inflammation, it is very important to avoid events that trigger inflammation. Doing so helps settle down an easily agitated immune system. Second, it is important to dampen the immune response to unavoidable triggers (e.g., seasonal pollen allergies). And third, it would be ideal to normalize the immune response to inflammation triggers. The second and third approaches rely chiefly on dietary changes and nutritional supplements, and these approaches are discussed in depth in later chapters. occurs at individual rates of speed...

The Ins and Outs of Insulin

That make insulin have been destroyed by the immune system. Eventually, all of the cells that make insulin are destroyed and no insulin is produced. That is why type 1 diabetes is also called an autoimmune disorder. People with type 1 diabetes must take injections of insulin in order to live.

Worldwide increase in frequency

A recent pooled analysis of data from 1960 to 1996, involving 37 studies in 27 countries, showed that the incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing worldwide in both high- and low-risk populations68 at a rate of approximately 3-4 per year. Type 1 diabetes appears to be developing at an earlier age, with the age group 5-10 years having the largest proportional increase. The overall increase was 3.0 per year, and the relative increase was steeper in the populations with lower incidence. According to this estimate, the incidence of type 1 diabetes will be 40 higher in 2010 than 1998. In Finland in 1953, the incidence in children was 13 per 100000 by 2010, it is estimated to reach 50 per 100000. The reason for the worldwide increasing incidence is unclear, but it is likely to be related to non-genetic factors, given that the genetic pool is essentially unchanged. These factors might include changes in diet or childhood infections leading to altered development of the immune system.

Selection of Adenoviral Vectors

Adenoviral gene transfer has become a common way to introduce genetic information to cultured cells. One of the reasons for this is the ease of construction of adenoviral vectors. The majority of adenoviral vectors allow for the insertion of target genes through the deletion of adenoviral genes. The development of these vectors has been documented previously and will not be reviewed in detail here (for review, see refs. 3 and 4). In brief, the first generation of vectors arose from the removal of the adenoviral E1 and or E3 genes (5). The E1 gene product of the adenovirus is essential for viral replication, and deletion of the E1 gene renders the adenovirus replication defective. The E3 gene is expendable in cultured cells because it allows the virus to evade the host immune system. This generation of vectors has been widely used and will be employed in the experiments that follow. Second-generation vectors were devised through deletion of some or the entire E2 gene that provides the...

Be A Health Detective

The story of your personal pollution unfolds as in a book. Look closely and you see the whole panorama of your numerous tiny invaders being held at bay by your valiant immune system, your white blood cells. You can see what they are fighting besides the invaders. Your ill-chosen diet and lifestyle products

The Aetiology Of Type Diabetes Summary

With all currently available information considered together, there seems to be no doubt that Type 1 diabetes develops as the consequence of interaction(s) between genetic factors and non-genetic determinants, leading to an immunemediated process of ,3-cell destruction which may be ongoing for several years before Type 1 diabetes presents clinically. This is schematically illustrated in Figure 7B.1. Many details of the aetiological determinants remain to be established, particularly how genetic factors interact with non-genetic determinants in the activation of the immune system. Possibly, each of several distinct combinations of genetic markers may, when exposure to relevant environmental factors takes place, induce the disease process that represents the unique pathogenetic feature of Type 1 diabetes. Possibly, other factors ( stress, infections)

Nutrients That Can Help

In general, the supplements that reduce symptoms of colds and flus can, in higher dosages, reduce symptoms and extend the lifespan in people with much more serious infections, such as HIV AIDS. These nutrients do not have direct antiviral activity. Rather, they enhance the immune system's ability to confront the infection, as well as to prevent nutritional deficiencies that further compromise health. NAC also can help people with sepsis and septic shock. Sepsis, an infection of the blood, often pushes hospitalized patients to a life-or-death situation not by a pathogen but by an overwhelming immune response to the infection. Researchers reported in the journal Chest that NAC reduced recovery times in patients with septic shock. NAC works in part by boosting glutathione, the most powerful of the body's own antioxidants. Selenium, part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, increases survival among patients with a condition that has similarities to sepsis, severe system...

Your Emotions and Diabetes

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. This is a process that usually takes many months, perhaps even years, before enough cells are lost so that diabetes starts. A person on the way to getting type 1 diabetes makes less and less insulin. A stressful experience increases the need for insulin. So, the insulin demands brought on by a stressful experience could overwhelm the body's ability to produce insulin.

True Origins Of Viruses

Shingles is a recurrence of chicken pox. I always find Ascaris in persons with shingles Unfortunately, killing the Ascaris does not cure shingles. Herpes Zoster (the shingles chicken pox virus) is known to hide in nerve cells. Perhaps Ascaris facilitates it's release, or simply suppresses the immune system in a way that allows it to suddenly multiply.

Breastfeeding and Cows Milk Protein

In the BB rat it was possible to reduce the incidence of diabetes by feeding the weanling rats a semisynthetic diet in which the proteins were replaced by L-amino acids (131). In this study, the presence of intact protein in the diet was necessary for the development of diabetes, and even small amounts of dietary protein increased the incidence in the BB rat. It was suggested that people with a low-protein diet might also have a low incidence of Type 1 diabetes. A more recent study showed that diet has a dramatic effect on the immune system in the BB rat (132) thymus weight and total white cell count were increased through a more pure diet, insulitis decreased, and the ratio of T-helper to T-suppressor cells was doubled.

Prediction Of Type Diabetes Available Markers

The current appreciation of the aetiology and pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes has important implications for prediction of the disease. Until immune markers appear in the circulation, the only available and reasonably well-established markers of Type 1 diabetes are represented by genetic determinants (Figure 7B.1). The appearance of immune markers signifies an activation of the immune system which to a high degree correlates with an ongoing destruction of the -cells of the pancreas. When a sufficiently large part of the cells has been destroyed metabolic decompensation develops, with clinical presentation of Type 1 diabetes as the consequence. This may be preceded by the demonstration of reduced response in insulin secretion to a glucose challenge. The scenario provides for the establishment of several types of markers in predicting Type 1 diabetes.

Pcell Protection From Recurring Autoimmunity

Viruses constitute a rich source of immunomodulatory genes (45). The immune system targets virus-infected cells with cellular and humoral immune responses, leading to cell death by necrosis or apoptosis, in order to stop the spread of a viral infection. Viruses must escape immune surveillance to successfully replicate in their host. Most viruses encode immunomodulatory proteins, which are among the first viral proteins to be expressed in infected cells. Among them are genes that inhibit antigen presentation, regulate cytokine activity, and prevent apoptosis. They provide the virus with a window of time in which it can replicate undisturbed. We have been studying the early region 3 (E3) genes of adenovirus as a tool for increasing P-cell resistance to immune effector molecules. These genes encode several proteins that downregulate class I major histo-compatibility complex (MHC)-mediated antigen presentation on the cell surface and provide protection from apoptosis induced by tumor...

Functional Genomic Studies Of Kidneys In Existing Rodent Models Of Diabetes

Wilson et al. (20) performed gene expression profiling of cDNA arrays (containing 5760 clones) in the kidneys of three groups of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice non-diabetic, new-onset, and long-term diabetic. A total of 27 genes had lower expression and 1 gene (Gpx3) had higher expression in the new-onset diabetic mice compared with nondiabetic control NOD mice (p < 0.001). Similarly, 19 of the above 27 genes and 7 additional genes had higher expression and the Gpx3 gene had lower expression in long-term diabetic mice compared with controls (p < 0.001). Interestingly, only three genes were different between new-onset and long-term diabetic mice (p < 0.0004). These genes are from diverse functional groups, including oxidative phosphorylation, free radical neutralization, channels, pumps, lipid processing, transcription, and translation machinery, protein trafficking, constitutive protein processing, and immune function. The majority of these genes fall into four signaling pathways...

Therapeutic Intervention Targeting

Because CCN2 appears to exert its effect in a very downstream manner, concerning injurious factors in DN, it would seem to be a potentially attractive therapeutic target. In fact, we first began our investigations into the role of CCN2 in DN seeking a new downstream element that might provide advantages over targeting molecules such as TGF-P. For example, TGF-P, an established profibrotic factor is ubiquitous, exists in multiple isoforms, and appears to play a role in a diverse array of biological functions including immune surveillance. CCN2 as a factor acting downstream of TGF-P and with the potential to also be stimulated independently of TGF-P would appear, a priori, to be a potentially more effective target. However, as recent evidence is solidifying its role as an important causal factor, it is also becoming increasingly clear that CCN2,

Standard Treatment

Avoidance of allergens is the best way not to have allergic reactions, but it is easier accomplished when the allergen is cat dander rather than pollen. Over-the-counter antihistamine products block allergy symptoms, but at a cost drowsiness and an increased risk of cancer. Some prescription antihistamines (Claritin, Allegra, and Zyrtec) are safer than over-the-counter varieties. Immunotherapy allergy shots also can blunt symptoms, as can corticosteroid drugs.

Modification of Environmental Factors

It is to be hoped that the high-risk approach will be of more use in the future when a better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanism of the disease has been achieved and the environmental factors have been clarified. As not all siblings or offspring defined to be at high risk by HLA genotyping and with the existing immuno-logic and clinical markers develop diabetes, it is unethical to attempt immunotherapy in these still healthy children (212,213).

Cows milk and other foods

Cow's milk consumption may be diabetogenic also during childhood according to case-control and cohort findings (Verge et al. 1994 Virtanen et al. 1998, 2000). In an Australian case-control study, cereal consumption was positively related to the risk of diabetes, although the association disappeared after adjustment for other dietary factors (Verge et al. 1994). The cell-mediated immune response to gluten was detected more frequently among newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes than among controls (Klemetti et al. 1998).

Fatty Liver Hepatitis And Cirrhosis

Chronic alcohol consumption can cause the deposition of excess triglycerol in the liver leading to a condition known as 'fatty liver'. This damage can lead to hepatitis and, if severe enough, to cirrhosis. The damage is thought to be due to the high concentrations of ethanal within the cell and if severe enough will result in cell death. Cell damage and death trigger an inflammatory response, i.e. infiltration of lymphocytes and activation of an immune response. If this is not treated it will lead to the formation of fibrous tissue and a severe reduction in the functioning of the liver.

Dietary strategies for preventing the onset of diabetes

It has been suggested that for type 1 diabetes an early exposure to cows' milk proteins may play a role in triggering the immune response that destroys pancreatic beta-cells.2 Observational studies have shown that breastfeeding is associated with a lower incidence of type 1 diabetes.3'4 It is hoped that the multicentre study, 'Trial to Reduce Type 1 Diabetes in the Genetically at Risk' (TRIGR) started in May 2002 will give a definite answer to this hypothesis. In this study, an offspring of someone with diabetes or first degree relative who possesses a high-risk genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes should be breastfed for at least 6 months of life. If the mother is unable to exclusively breastfeed, her child will then be randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group receives breastfeeding supplements of a special formula based on extensively hydrolysed cows' milk proteins the other group receives a normal formula containing cows' milk with a small amount of hydrolysed...

Practicalities Of Feeding Hospitalised Patients

The degree of hyperglycaemia and requires monitoring and control separate to the diabetes (8). Some of the clinical consequences of hyperlipidaemia include impairment of the immune response, endothelial dysfunction, an increased tendency to develop a coagulopathy and an exacerbation of insulin resistance.

The BComplex Vitamins

However, when a person has low levels of one or more of these vitamins, homocysteine cannot be converted, and blood levels rise. This imbalance usually occurs for one of several reasons too much protein, too few B vitamins, or a common genetic defect that partially interferes with how the body uses folic acid. Without sufficient B vitamins, homocys-teine injures blood vessel walls, particularly those in the heart and brain. This injury triggers an immune response, attracting white blood cells to the blood vessel wall and damaging it.

Vitamin E and Nasal Allergies

Based on all of these studies, you might think that vitamin E can suppress immunity and increase the risk of infections. However, the opposite appears to be true, suggesting that vitamin E plays a role in regulating normal immune responses. Simin Nikbin Meydani, D.V.M., Ph.D., of Tufts University, gave seventy-eight healthy seniors various amounts of vita min E or placebos for eight months. She found that people taking 200 IU of vitamin E daily improved their immune response, measured by a viral or bacterial challenge in the skin, by an average of 65 percent. Levels of prostaglandin E2 decreased, hinting that high levels of this proinflammatory substance interfere with the normal immune response to infection. Although the study was not intended to measure whether vitamin E reduced the number of infections, Meydani did find that patients taking vitamin E reported having 30 percent fewer colds than did the placebo group.

Stages In Development

In the second stage, an environmental trigger initiates autoimmunity. This eventuates in an anti-beta-cell cellular immune response leading to an immune mediated islet infiltrate (insulitis), with consequent beta-cell injury, impairment of beta-cell function, and some loss of beta-cell mass. As beta-cells are injured, a presumably secondary humoral immune response develops, with the appearance of beta-cell autoantibodies. The principal antibodies are islet cytoplasmic antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA), and antibodies to islet tyrosine phosphatases (IA2 and IA2 ). (The antibodies to IA2 include the antibody ICA512 directed at a component of IA2, while the antibodies to IA2 include one directed against an insulin granule membrane protein, phogrin phosphatase homologue of granules from rat insulinoma .) This stage is identified by the presence of autoantibodies.

Lipoprotein Glycation Oxidation and Glyco Oxidation

It has been postulated that enhanced glycation, oxidation, and glyco-oxidation of lipoproteins may underlie the development of macrovascular disease in diabetes. This is quite an attractive hypothesis because it would explain the individual variation in the development of complications in diabetes. Regardless of the similarity in glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors, the development of complications would also depend on differences in oxidative stress and variations in the antioxidant defenses and in differences in the immune response to the modified lipoproteins. A short summary of the large body of evidence showing that modified lipoproteins may be relevant to the accelerated development of atherosclerosis in diabetes is presented next.

Apoptosis as a Mechanism of pCell Death

Apoptosis or programmed cell death is an integral part of tissue homeostasis and apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared from tissues by scavenger macrophages or by immature dendritic cells to prevent inappropriate inflammatory responses. Apoptosis refers to the morphological features of programmed cell death, which is a normal process contributing to tissue turnover during development and in the adult. Traditionally, apoptosis is not expected to be associated with a subsequent immune response. Cells that undergo apoptosis are characterized by shrinkage, nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, and membrane changes that eventually lead to phagocytosis of the affected cell. The possible role of apoptosis in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis has recently been reviewed (122,123). The following signaling pathways have been implied in apoptosis the Fas system, stress-activated protein kinases, serine threonine kinases, the Ras signaling pathway, protein kinase C, calcium signaling pathways,...

Stage Foot with Infection Diagnosis

The microbiology of diabetic foot infections is unique and gram positive, gram negative and anaerobes can be responsible. Staphylococci and streptococci are the most common pathogens. However, infection due to gram negative and anaerobic organisms occur in approximately 50 of patients and often infection is polymicrobial. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism although MRSA is increasingly found in infected ulcers (68). There is a poor immune response of the diabetic patient to sepsis and even bacteria regarded as skin commensals, may cause severe tissue damage. This includes gram negative organisms such as Citrobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. It is advisable to send swabs or preferably tissue for culture after initial debridement in all Stage 4 patients (69,70). In osteomyelitis, superficial swab cultures may not reliably identify bone bacteria and percutaneous bone biopsy seems to be safe for patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis (71).

Type Diabetes Mellitus

Encoding the p-chain of class II DQ molecules predispose to diabetes in Caucasians but not in Japanese. In contrast, the HLS-DQ6 molecule protects against the disease. HLA antigens (classes I and II) are cell-surface glycoproteins that play a crucial role in presenting autoantigen peptide fragments to T lymphocytes and thus initiating an immune response. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding specific peptide chains of the HLA molecules may therefore modulate the ability of p-cell-derived antigens to trigger an autoimmune response against the p-cell. Type 1 DM is associated with autoimmune destruction of the p-cells of the endocrine pancreas. Examination of islet tissue obtained from pancreatic biopsy or at postmortem from patients with recent-onset type 1 DM confirms a mononuclear cell infiltrate (termed insulitis) with the presence of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and macrophages suggesting that these cells have a role in the destruction of p-cells. Although the precise...

Prevention of Type Diabetes Mellitus

Environmental insults which have the potential of triggering development of disease in genetically susceptible individuals, while other environmental factors appear to be associated with protection from development of disease. In addition, there seem to be complex regulatory interactions amongst various elements of the immune response, with some elements of the immune circuitry being responsible for beta-cell destruction and others regulating that response and leading to beta-cell protection.

Is Disease Prevention Possible

Although p-cell function can be preserved and extended beyond the time of diagnosis, there is little realistic hope of restoring normal metabolic function at this stage of the disease. it is therefore logical to attempt p-cell rescue at an earlier stage when the p-cell mass is largely intact. Work done over the past 25 years has transformed our understanding of the sequence of events culminating in immune-mediated p-cell failure, but the average diabetes specialist is still in the position of a nephrologist unable to identify renal dysfunction until his patients present for dialysis. Some 90-95 of children with type 1 diabetes have (HLA) human leukocyte antigen genotypes conferring susceptibility to the disease, but only around 5 of those with the highest risk combination will develop diabetes in childhood. Prospective studies have shown that islet autoantibodies typically appear within the first three years of life3, although this should not be taken as dogma, and the influence of...

Overview of Diabetes Management Combined Treatment and Therapeutic Additions

Transplantation of isolated islets has not yet yielded fully satisfactory results. The same is true for the implantation of nonislet cells engineered to produce human insulin. Yet, islet transplantation could become an attractive alternative to whole organ transplantation, since it is a simpler and safer procedure. However, the requirement for long-term immuno-suppression has limited the indication of islet transplantation to patients receiving a simultaneous kidney transplant or already bearing one. Although the majority of recipients of islet allografts did not become insulin independent, the long-term results in patients with even partial graft function are comparable or better than those achievable with intensive insulin therapy. Indeed, successful islet transplantation is a difficult challenge, but current achievements with human islet allografts may greatly improve glycemic control. In some studies, serum C-peptide levels diminished after a few months, and...

Experimental Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile capacity was evaluated by measuring the intracavernous pressure response to cavernous nerve stimulation (ranging from 0.5 to 10 mA). In the first series of experiments, ANOVA revealed increased engorgement pressure in treated animals. A second series of experiments further examined the dose dependence and duration of gene transfer. The intracavernous pressure response to submaximal (0.5 mA) and maximal (10 mA) nerve stimulation was evaluated 3 or 4 months postinjection of a single dose of pcDNA-hSlo ranging from 10 to 1000 g. ANOVA again revealed that hSlo overexpression was associated with increased nerve-stimulated pressure responses compared with responses in corresponding control animals. Histological studies revealed no immune response to the presence of hSlo. Polymerase chain reaction analysis documented that expression of both plasmid and transcript were largely confined to the corporal tissue. In the third series of pharmacological experiments, hSlo gene transfer in...

Diabetic Foot Ulceration

Diabetic Foot Ulcer Process Formation

The risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration can be categorized into three distinct groups pathophysiological, anatomic deformities, and environmental influences. The pathophysiological changes, which occur at the biomolecular level lead to changes that result in the development of peripheral sensory neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, and a compromised immune system with alteration in wound healing capabilities. The second group with anatomic deformities are largely the result of motor neuropathy and in some cases Charcot neuroarthropathy. Finally, external or environmental influences in the form of acute or chronic trauma often precipitates the initiation of ulceration with initial soft tissue injury. It is important to note that most of these risk factors do not act independently to produce foot ulceration. Instead, it is usually a combination of these risk factors that triggers a pathway leading to ulceration. Such risk factors can consist of a number of component causes,...

Oral diabetes medications or oral hyperglycemic medications

Type 1 diabetes Also called immune-mediated diabetes. A form of diabetes that tends to develop before age 30 but may occur at any age. It's usually caused when the immune system attacks the beta cells of the pancreas and the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. People who have type 1 diabetes must take insulin to survive.

Pathogenesis Pathogenesis in general

As part of the immune response, infection and adherence of the bacteria to uroepithelial cells stimulates cytokine and chemokine secretion, as well as exfoliation of the superficial cells. It has long been thought that uropathogenic E. coli are non-invasive pathogens. However, a recent study in mice has shown that type-1 fimbriated E. coli can not only lead to exfoliation, but can also invade the uroepithelial cells, replicate and form quiescent intracellular reservoirs which can serve as a possible source for recurrent UTIs 24 . Because we found lower urinary cytokine concentrations in women with DM 22 , we hypothesized that in these patients bacteria might invade uroepithelial cells more easily, and, by an impaired inflammatory response, evade the innate host defenses 15 . This would explain why relapses of UTIs occur often in these patients 25 . Future studies will have to provide the evidence for this phenomenon.

Obstacles to Success of Islet Allotransplantation

Poor engraftment is the first of these obstacles. The number of islets infused in a transplant procedure is far from matching the number of islets composing a normal endocrine pancreas (the recommended threshold of 6000 IEq kg represents 420,000 IEq in a 70-kg patient, i.e., less than half the one million islets of a human pancreas). Islets are an essentially avascular graft, which renders them particularly prone to hypoxia, at least during the time elapsing before neovessels revascularize the transplant (98,99). As already pointed out, a vast majority of islets are lost early after transplantation. The nonspecific events leading to early graft loss are collectively termed primary nonfunction and are not related to classic rejection immune phenomena. Rather, they result from poor intrinsic quality of the islet preparation or from interaction of the islets with inflammatory elements of the hepatic microenvironment in which they are implanted, a situation that does not occur in...

Causes of Type Diabetes

Insulin is produced by the beta cells in the pancreas. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly destroys these cells. The body responds to the beta cells as if they were foreign invaders. This is called an autoimmune response. Autoimmune responses also occur in other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, lupus, and thyroid diseases such as hypothy-roidism (Hashimoto's disease) and hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). Researchers do not know exactly why this happens. But for diabetes, researchers have found many factors that appear to be linked to type 1 diabetes. These include genetics, autoantibodies, viruses, cow's milk, and oxygen free radicals. The immune system protects you from disease by killing germs and other foreign invaders. It does this largely through the action of white blood cells, or lymphocytes. T lymphocytes, or T cells, can attack foreign cells directly. B lymphocytes, or B cells, produce special proteins called antibodies that recognize the shapes...

In How Many Ways Can the pCells Get Killed Killing by Virus

It is evident that Th1 cells are not the sole mediators of islet P-cell destruction, that Th2 cells are not inhibitory or benign, as was previously suggested, because they are capable of inducing islet P-cell destruction, and that both Th1 and Th2 cytokines appear to cooperate in driving P-cell destruction. Th1-driven attacks are more rapid and aggressive and are sustained for a longer time period. This suggested that Th2-mediated attacks are responsible for an early phase of type 1 diabetes, whereas Th1-driven responses are responsible for the persistent and sustained attacks. Th1 lesions comprised focally confined insulitis consisting primarily of CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells, and islet P-cells die by apoptosis, thereby sparing surrounding exocrine tissue. In contrast, Th2 lesions were more dispersed and consisted primarily of macrophages, with a notable scarcity of T-cells and P-cells die by necrosis. Also, there is an accumulation of fibroblasts and the generation of extensive...

Mechanisms Of Immunity In Diabetes

Several factors affecting the immune system may increase the susceptibility to infections in patients with diabetes mellitus. white blood cell abnormalities have been demonstrated in the form of impaired adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and microbicidal function (2,3). The intracellular killing of organisms by leukocytes is mediated by release of toxic free radicals, superoxides, and hydrogen peroxide. This phenomenon is referred to as the respiratory burst and is defective in patients with diabetes mellitus (4). Polymorphonuclear function is further affected by a state of persistent low-level activation by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This hyperexcited

Preclinical Studies Animal Studies

The availability of BB rats and NOD mice has greatly enhanced our understanding of the possible pathogenic mechanisms involved in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes. The human immune response is, however, different from that of the rodents and pre-clinical trials may not always be applicable to humans. For example, macrophages play an essential role in initiating animal insulitis They are the first infiltrating cells and an immune intervention directed against macrophages prevent diabetes development. Several inflammatory mediators produced by macrophages may cause islet P-cell destruction in murine insulin-dependent diabetes, but as indicated earlier, human P-cells appear more resistant to cytokine-induced apoptosis or necrosis.

Hla Complex And Mechanisms Of Susceptibility To Or Protection From

Amino acid polymorphism at position 57 the HLA-DQP-chain could influence the interaction between the class II molecule on the antigen-presenting cell, the peptide antigen, and the TCR of the helper T-cell. Consequently, this influences the control of the specificity of the immune response to foreign and or self antigens (see Fig. 6) (22).

Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

A number of lines of evidence suggest a genetic predisposition to developing type 1 diabetes. The lifetime risk of type 1 diabetes is 0.4 in white populations and rises to 5 to 6 if a first-degree relative is affected. Concordance rates for monozygotic (identical) twins are approximately 50 , but only 6 for dizygotic (nonidentical) twins.17 Genome-wide screens for susceptibility genes for type 1 diabetes have identified more than ten chromosomal loci.18-21 The two loci that contribute most to the risk of type 1 diabetes are the HLA region (tissue compatibility genes) and the insulin gene locus. Detailed analysis of the HLA region on chromosome 6 has shown that HLA DR3 and DR4 haplotypes increase and HLA DR2 haplotype decreases the risk of type 1 diabetes. Because HLA cell surface molecules are involved in activating T-cell immune responses, it is hypothesized that the DR3 and DR4 forms somehow induce an aberrant immune response, perhaps secondary to a viral infection.

Pollution

Two people can use the same face cream. One develops a rash, the other does not. The one who did not assumes the cream is not harmful to them that they are like a bank vault, impregnable to that product. A better assumption is that the face cream is somewhat toxic, as evidenced by the rash that can develop, and they escaped the rash only because they had a stronger immune system. The immune system is like money, paid out of the bank vault, for every toxic invasion. When the money is gone, the bank (your health) fails.

Endocannabinoids

Intake, and lipid and glucose metabolism through both central and peripheral effects (278). This system consists of endogenous ligands and two types of G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors CB1 in the brain and peripheral organs including adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, adrenal and liver (279) and CB2 in the immune system (280). The endocanna-binoid system is overactivated in genetic animal models of obesity (281) and in response to exogenous stimuli such as excessive food intake (282).

Type Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is usually an autoimmune disease. This means that the immune system makes a mistake and begins attacking healthy body parts. Normally, the immune system produces antibodies that destroy bad viruses and bacteria that get into the body, like an army rushing out to stop an invading enemy. For instance, when someone gets a cut on the hand, the immune system immediately starts making antibodies that rush to the cut to prevent infection. However, with an autoimmune illness, the immune system goes haywire. No one knows why, but it mistakenly sees healthy cells as an enemy and attacks them. When it destroys the beta cells in the pancreas, the body can no longer produce any insulin at all, creating type 1 diabetes.

Transplants

In other ongoing experiments, researchers are attempting to alter the code on the outside of beta cells so that the immune system will not recognize them as foreign material. If this work is successful, immunosuppression drugs will no longer be necessary when transplanting beta cells from one person to another.

White Blood Cells

Your white blood cells are your immune system's first line of defense. In addition to making antibodies, interferon, inter-leukins, and other attack chemicals, they also eat foreign substances in your body and eliminate them. By simply checking your white blood cells for toxins or intruders you save having to

Conclusions

The molecular mechanisms of P-cell killing associated with the development of human type 1 diabetes are largely unknown. The islets of Langerhans are often but not always infiltrated with immune system cells, primarily CD8+ T-cells, CD4+ T-cells, and macrophages at the time of clinical onset. Insulitis may be more severe and more common in the young at age at onset. Little is known about cell infiltration in subjects at risk for developing type 1 diabetes, such as being positive for GAD65, IA-2, or insulin autoantibodies. There is a major gap in knowledge about whether the molecular mechanism of P-cell destruction involves P-cell autoantigen-specific CD8+ T-cells, CD4+ T-cell, or macrophage-induced cytokine-mediated apoptosis or necrosis or a combination of these factors. The exquisite P-cell specificity may be best explained by cell-mediated, perhaps even antibody-mediated cytotoxicity directed against P-cell specific antigens such as GAD65, IA-2, or insulin. Numerous preclinical and...

Causes

When an immune system reacts to something, such as ragweed pollen, when it shouldn't, it is obvious that something serious has gone awry. Pollens or dander are misidentified by immune cells as threats, triggering a massive and physically uncomfortable response. While medical and drug researchers are trying to figure out the molecular details of what goes wrong, they miss the obvious allergies, on the scale that they now exist, are a recent phenomenon. So what has changed Research conducted by Francis Pottenger, M.D., during the 1930s offers a clue about how modern dietary changes have led to significant increases in the prevalence of allergies. Pottenger conducted a variety of dietary studies on more than nine hundred cats. He found that when the quality of their diets declined, health problems developed and grew worse, with each subsequent generation eating the same poor diet. By the third generation 90 percent of cats eating poor diets had developed allergies and skin diseases...

Islet Transplants

However, says Farney, the islet transplant is not a cure. It is a treatment. Patients will still have to take medicine to prevent rejection of the transplanted cells.39 As with any transplant, rejection is the greatest risk and problem. When the body senses something inside it that it believes does not belong there, the immune system will attack it in an effort to get rid of it. With type 1 diabetes, the immune system often mistakenly destroys the person's own beta cells, and this can happen again with new islets from someone else. That is why people who receive any kind of transplant, including islets, must take special drugs, called immunosuppressive drugs, to prevent the body from attacking and destroying the transplanted islets. These drugs must be taken for life. Unfortunately, these drugs can have terrible side effects, including mouth sores, digestive problems, anemia, and high blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Because they suppress the immune system, they make the person...

Curing Symptoms

Homeopaths say they stimulate the immune system specifically. My results show they do much more. They go right to the gateways of your cells and evict the tiny parasite, bacteria or virus stuck to the latch and trying to get in. Your immune system would be able to gobble them all up if they weren't gagged by the food mold you ate. Herbs, too, can cure symptoms rather quickly. Elderberry tea mixed with peppermint is cited in herbal textbooks and it could probably do a lot if it weren't for the mold immuno-suppression. If you plan on trying these start with a set of thyme, fenugreek, sage (for throat). Since both herbs and homeopathic remedies work on the principle of ejection, they could eject each other. Maybe the last one to arrive takes over. This is an exciting field for you to explore.

Viruses

Other theories may also explain how a viral infection might lead to diabetes. Some researchers believe that when a virus infects a body, it might somehow change the structure of the antigens on the surface of the islet cells. If this occurs, then the altered antigen might appear to be foreign to the immune system, and a person's own insulin-producing islet cells might be destroyed. Another well-known diabetes researcher has a different theory. He believes that diabetes is a relatively new disease caused by a slow-acting virus. Although such a virus has not been found, he holds that the virus causes the immune system to attack proteins in the pancreas. A drastic increase in the number of cases of type 1 diabetes occurred on the island of Sardinia, Italy, in the 1960s and in Finland in the 1970s, and he believes that such a slow-acting virus could be the culprit. Although it seems unlikely, different kinds of food may play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes. For example, one...

Intoout

Make sure all fragrances are removed from the air, even though family members like them. They don't belong in air. The lungs treat them like toxins to be coughed up or removed by the kidneys and immune system. This includes colognes, scented tissues, soap and shampoo and shaving supplies. If you can walk into the bathroom blindfolded and know you're in the bathroom, it's not clean enough. Everything in the bathroom pollutes the air of the whole house. People who must use fragrance should apply it outdoors to keep the indoor air less polluted.

Concluding Remarks

Autoantibodies that are reactive to islet antigens are present at the time of diagnosis in almost all patients with type 1 diabetes. Additionally, 10 of phenotypic type 2 diabetic patients also are positive for at least one of the islet autoantibodies. They also share many genetic similarities with type 1 diabetes. These similarities (genetic and immunological) between LADA and type 1 diabetes strongly suggest that LADA, like type 1 diabetes, is an autoimmune disease. But the antibody, T cell, and genetic differences between type 1 diabetes and LADA suggest the possibility that there are important differences in the underlying autoimmune disease processes of type 1 diabetes and LADA. In LADA diabetes occurs earlier in the p-cell-destructive process because of the greater insulin resistance it is also likely that some of the observed differences are due to age-related effects on the immune system. Complexities arise also because of the variable definitions of LADA and type 1 diabetes,...

Disease Process

The Type 1 diabetes disease process is one of selective destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans (53, 54). The current concept is that islet beta-cells are destroyed by an immune response mediated by T-lymphocytes that react specifically to one or more beta-cell proteins (autoantigens). The exact mechanisms have not yet been clearly defined, as there appear to be complex regulatory interactions amongst various elements of the immune response, and it is unclear which elements of the immune circuitry are responsible for beta-cell destruction and which are responsible for beta-cell protection. The prevalent view is that islet cell destruction is enhanced by CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes stimulated by T-helper-1 (Th1) subset of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, with inhibition of islet destruction by T-helper-2 (Th2) subset of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and CD876 suppressor T-lymphocytes. Thus, the pathogenetic sequence potentially could be altered either by...

Molds and Colds

You may have Adenovi-ruses quietly slipping into your blood stream and tissues from a tapeworm stage or mite you inhaled, or E. coli bacteria that strayed into your tissues, and which is being slowly killed by your immune system. Your immune system can keep up with them quite easily provided you don't have a mold in you at the same time. The significance of the mold is that it lowers your immunity, specifically and generally.

Infertility

When the concern is overpopulation of this planet, reproductive failure might seem less ominous. Maybe it's no worse than the natural way any species curbs its growth rate. Maybe only those who can survive parasitism, pollution and immune deficiency should survive in order to strengthen the species. But when reproductive intervention becomes a necessity, not an option, surely the danger signal is present as it was for the DDT'd birds who saw cracks develop in their eggs. The solution to our reproductive failure is not to find ever more artificial ways to conceive, to give birth, and to care for damaged babies. The solution is to fix the old fashioned way to safeguard the natural way. If you fail to observe this warning and do get pregnant too soon, you may pray for miscarriage. Otherwise, take vitamin C and thioctic acid and hope for the best. Men should add daily zinc and arginine (60 mg. and 450 mg, respectively) to their diets. Both men and women should add vitamin E (200 mg.), a...

Blockade of Signal

Led to the development of a chimeric FcyR-nonbinding anti-CD3 MAb, obtained by combining the F(ab')2 region of a hamster-anti-mouse CD3 with a mouse Fcy3 portion with very low affinity for the FcyR. This MAb was first shown to have similar immunosuppressive properties as the native antibody, but prolongation of skin graft survival was observed without eliciting a cytokine storm or a humoral response against the MAb (167). Further studies demonstrated that the chimeric MAb delivered incomplete TCR signals, characterized by altered phosphorylation patterns of the CD3 TCR complex and resulting in unresponsiveness of Th1 clones and a T-cell response skewed toward a Th2 phenotype (168,169). This observation has important implications for islet transplantation because it is thought that enhanced Th2 activity at the expense of the Th1 subset may play a significant role in the maintenance of tolerance both to alloantigens and autoantigens (170,171). In this regard, long-term remission has...

The KIAA Locus

DM1 association with CLEC16A (C-type lectin 16A, formerly KIAA0350) was independently identified by two recent GWA studies (114-116). The DM1-associated SNPs map to a large LD block (233 kb) CLEC16A is the only identified gene in the region, which makes this gene a prime candidate for harboring the causative variant. The predicted protein product bears similarities to a subset of adhesion and immune function signaling molecules. It contains a calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin-binding domain structure and may be involved with calcium current flux. The C-type lectins are known for their recognition of a diversity of carbohydrates and are critical for a variety of processes ranging from cell adhesion to pathogen recognition (117). CLEC16A is expressed in B lymphocytes, dendritic antigen-presenting cells, and NK-cells, which is in keeping with a function relevant to an immune-mediated disease such as DM1. The mechanism underlying the genetic effect remains to be elucidated.

Preamble

Prevention of type 1 diabetes currently resides at around the same level as peace on earth eminently desirable, theoretically possible, not as yet demonstrated. Jay Skyler has ably summarised the evidence that p-cell function can be influenced by therapies introduced at the time of diagnosis of type v diabetes. The immune intervention most convincingly shown to prolong p-cell function following diagnosis is cyclosporine, but its effects are usually transient and the risk of nephrotoxicity disqualifies it from further consideration. Nicotinamide is not known to affect immune function, but animal studies suggest that it can help p-cells to survive in a hostile environment. Its effects in humans following diagnosis are measurable, but clinically unimportant. The most evidence-based means of preserving p-cell function after diagnosis would be the introduction of intensified insulin therapy from the time of diagnosis. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial demonstrated reciprocal...

The Hla Complex

The short arm of human chromosome 6 (6p21) accommodates an approximate 3.5-megabase genetic segment containing a group of immune response genes termed the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (see Fig. 1). The principal genes located within the MHC code for human leukocyte antigens, or HLA, two molecular classes of cell surface glycoproteins differing in structure, function, and tissue distribution (see Table 5 and Fig. 1).

Postpartum

Careful attention is made to patients with cesarean deliveries as women with preexisting diabetes have at least a 2.5-fold increased risk of wound complications, even after adjusting for maternal obesity and labor prior to cesarean delivery vs. the nondiabetic patient (92). One mechanism for this increased risk may be due to hyperglycemia, which may inhibit the immune response to infection. Wound care should be aggressive, and seromas, cellulitis, hematomas, and purulence should be drained and packed, and antibiotics should be given if infection is suspected. Daily wound care should be provided by visiting nurses, and weekly visits to the obstetrician are recommended to monitor wound healing.

Insulin

Diabetes may be generated in mice following manipulation to break tolerance combined with immunization with the insulin B9-23 peptide (75). Similar mechanisms need to be studied in humans to determine the possible importance of an anti-insulin immune response in P-cell destruction. The role of insulin in CTL killing of P-cells requires the expression of insulin peptides on HLA class I molecules. It is well known that HLA class I is expressed on the surface of P-cells (76) and that insulitis is associated with an increased expression of these molecules (77,78). Novel techniques such as HLA tetramers (79) may prove useful in identifying T-cells that have TCRs recognizing specific insulin peptides on either CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. It will be important to identify HLA class I-restricted and insulin peptide-dependent CTLs that are able to kill human P-cells and uncover the possible role of such cells in P-cell destruction.

Celiac disease

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy that results from the exposure to gluten found in wheat, barley, and rye. The gluten causes an immune response that causes an inflammatory reaction in the upper small intestine leading to villous atrophy. CD occurs in about 1 of the population in the USA, and it is estimated that 97 of those people are not diagnosed (34). Approximately 6-10 of individuals with type 1 diabetes have CD (35).

Viral Infection

One mechanism by which viral infection may influence the immune response is through molecular mimicry. There is a homologous domain in the Coxsackie-B virus protein 2C (p. 2C) and the islet autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) (30). There is T-cell reactivity to GAD peptide sequences shared with Coxsackie virus protein in recent-onset Type 1 diabetes (31). Moreover, it has recently been shown that this homologous domain is highly conserved in the Coxsackie B-like enteroviruses (32). These are very prevalent enteroviruses and therefore exposure to the mimicry motif will be a frequent event throughout life. It has also been shown that the p. 2C domain binds to the diabetes associated HLA-DR3 molecule (32). It is thus possible that this molecular mimicry may be limited to the HLA-DR3 positive subpopulation of Type 1 diabetic patients.

Blood Flow

ENCAPSULATION OF ISLETS in semiporous plastic is one promising way to protect them from attack by the immune system. Three approaches under investigation are depicted. In all cases, the plastic allows glucose from the blood to reach the cell clusters and enables insulin that is secreted in response to escape into the bloodstream, but the material bars white blood cells and antibodies of the immune system (not shown) from reaching the islets. For the immediate future, the logical alternative to human islets is pig islets. Those cells are an attractive option because they are readily available and the insulin they produce is almost identical to that of humans. Further, we and others, anticipating that porcine islets would be useful, have already developed methods for isolating them from vast numbers of pancreases at once. If the islets are hidden from the immune system by encapsulation, transplanta

Earache

Earache is particularly common in children. Bacteria, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae, have built up to a high level. Zap them. They were probably introduced by some larger parasite. But why did they multiply and thrive in your child's ear There must have been food for them and protection from the immune system. Probably the Eustachian tubes are full of mucous, providing habitat. The mucous is present because some air toxin is irritating the sensitive linings. Clean up the air not just asbestos, fiberglass, formaldehyde, freon, and arsenic, but perfumes, fragrant school supplies, potpourri.

Hiatal Hernia

Ruby Adair, age 14, filled a page with her symptoms. She was also chronically fatigued and had consumed enough antibiotic to fill a room. She had shooting pains from under her feet up her legs. A quick check revealed mercury and thallium in her immune system. Instead of being dismayed, this news filled her with hope for recovery. She arranged for dental metal replacement. Then she related her stomach story. While at a wedding, a year ago, she began vomiting with diarrhea. She thought it was the stomach flu but she didn't recover for six months and had to miss school. The psychologist thought it was emotional. She was still only attending school one hour a day. We found Fasciolopsis, the intestinal fluke, in her stomach wall as well as in her intestine. She started the parasite program and in three weeks her appetite was back, insomnia was gone, fatigue was better and a significant improvement was evident.

Herpes

I have some evidence that it is released from dog tapeworm stages when these are being killed by your immune system. It is probably the same tapeworm stage as releases the Adenovirus (cold virus) which would explain why children frequently get Herpes lives in your nerve centers (ganglia) and it is from here that you can be attacked after the initial infection. Evidently your immune system can destroy them as quickly as they emerge. But a meal of aflatoxin or other moldy food suddenly gags your white blood cells and lets a viral attack happen.

Diabetic Neuropathy

Proximal motor neuropathy (femoral neuropathy or diabetic amyotrophy) is a particularly devastating neurologic complication of diabetes. It can be identified clinically by certain common features. It primarily affects the elderly and is of gradual or abrupt onset beginning with pain in the thighs and hips or buttocks. Weakness of the proximal muscles of the lower limbs follows. The condition begins unilaterally but often spreads bilaterally and is associated with weight loss and depression. Slow, sometimes incomplete, recovery usually occurs but may take several months or a year or more. Electrophysiologic evaluation reveals a lum-bosacral plexopathy, and the condition is now thought to be secondary to a variety of causes that occur more frequently in diabetes, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, monoclonal gam-mopathy and inflammatory vasculitis. If found to be immune mediated, resolution may be very prompt with immunotherapy. Mononeuropathies must be...

Toxic Food

Grilled food develops benzopyrenes in it that are very toxic. In an age of lowered immunity, it makes little sense to deliberately poison the food with benzopyrenes. Especially for children, who will be faced with new viruses and parasites in their lifetimes. Will they be able to overcome them or succumb at middle age Only the strength of their immune system decides this.

Jay S Skyler

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by immune-mediated pancreatic islet B-cell destruction, absolute insulin deficiency, and thus dependence on insulin therapy for the preservation of life1. The type 1 diabetes disease process involves (1) a genetic predisposition, conferred principally by 'diabetogenic' genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the short arm of chromosome 6 (2) non-genetic (environmental) factors that appear to act as triggers in genetically susceptible people and (3) activation of immune mechanisms targeted against pancreatic islet B-cells. The initial immune response engenders secondary and tertiary responses which collectively result in impairment of B-cell function, progressive destruction of B-cells, and consequent development of type 1 diabetes. The process is insidious and may evolve over many years, with the overt expression of clinical symptoms becoming apparent only when most B-cells have been destroyed. Yet, even at disease onset, 10-20 of...

Curing Hivaids

AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Several common mold toxins inhibit the immune system, too, specifically those white blood cells that are supposed to eat and destroy viruses. Consequently, the HIV virus cannot be checked once it is introduced in the body. Benzene goes to the bone marrow where T-cells are made, and to the thymus where T-cells are programmed, two big blows to the immune system. As your thymus recovers your immunity returns. Immunity to all the diseases that lurk at very low level in our bodies. They are already in us. We have accumulated them in a lifetime. Mumps, measles, chicken pox, CMV, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, are all there. Until now they have been controlled-kept down-by an ever vigilant immune system. If this system fails you are an easy target for any and all of these invaders.