Subject Index

a a-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), 414 Acetonemia, usage, 162 Acetylcholine, usage, 438 Acidosis, definition, 160 Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD), 41, 147, 337

Acute ischemic stroke, see Ischemic stroke, acute

Acute stroke, hyperglycemia, see

Hyperglycemia, in acute stroke ADA, see American Diabetes Association AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive

(ADAS-Cog), 449 Adiposity, 325 and AD, 331-332 and dementia, 328-329 elevation, 327

See also Alzheimer's disease (AD) Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), 350

Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study, 450

Adults cognitive impairments, T1D, 277, 278

clinical practice, 290 cognitive dysfunction, risk factors hyperglycaemia, 287-288 hypoglycaemia, 286-287 interactive effects, 288-289 diabetic encephalopathy vs. cognitive resilience, 289-290

in middle-aged adult patients, 279-281 MRI findings, 282-285 in older people, 282 psychiatric comorbidity, 285-286 Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), 11,415

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs), 357 Age related cognitive decline and dementia role of insulin resistance, 434 brain insulin effects, 437-438 diabetes and dementia, 435-436 glucose and memory, 435 insulin and dementia, 438-439 in periphery and CNS, 436-437 Alloxan, usage, 390

Alzheimer's disease (AD), 105-107, 324 and adiposity, 331-332 diet and exercise, 449-451 and hyperinsulinemia, 332-333 and metabolic syndrome, 334-335 NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for diagnosis, 105 symptoms, 439 and T2D, 333-334 treatment strategies, 442-443 intranasal insulin administration,

444-446 PPAR-y class, 447-449 See also Diabetes; Type 1 diabetes (T1D); Type 2 diabetes (T2D) American Academy of Neurology (AAN), 114

American Diabetes Association, 34, 132, 160

From: Contemporary Diabetes: Diabetes and the Brain Edited by: G. J. Biessels, J. A. Luchsinger (eds.), DOI 10.1007/978-1-60327-850-8 © Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

American Diabetes Association (Continued) American Diabetes Association for DKA criteria, 162 for HHS criteria, 173 American Heart Association (AHA),

221, 232 Amputation, 21

ß-Amyloid and insulin role in regulation,

440-441 Amyloid-beta 1-42 (AB42), 119 Amyloid precursor protein (APP), 106, 122, 441

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), 46, 144

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), 15

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), 15 Animal models, of diabetes, 387-404 Antidiabetic agents mechanisms of action, 44 oral, 45

for T2D treatment, 43-45 Antihyperglycemic agents, 34 Antithrombotic medication, in ischemic stroke treatment, 63 Apolipoprotein E4 allele (APOEe4), 106 Apolipoprotein E (APOE), 304, 439 Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), 168 APS-II, see Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), 167 Aquaporin channels, role, 167 Aspirin, 220

Association pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement et Neurosciences (AIREN), 108 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities

(ARIC), 297 ATP III classification, 46 Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs),

258, 444 Autoimmune diseases and T1D, 6 Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II, 6 Autonomic reaction, definition, 135 See also Hypoglycemia b

Baddeley's model of working memory, 83

BB/Wor rat and NOD mouse models, 400

See also Diabetes Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), 93 Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive

Syndrome (BADS), 86 Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT), 86 Benton Test of Facial Matching, 89 Biomedical risk factors, of diabetic children and adolescents chronic hyperglycemia, 265-266 ketoacidosis, 264-265 psychological stress and mood disorder, 267

severe hypoglycemia, 262-264 See also Type 1 diabetes (T1D), in children and adolescents Bladder dysfunction, in ischemic stroke patients, 69 Blood-brain barrier (BBB), 166, 168, 231,

268, 415 Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

(BDNF), 352 Brain growth spurts, 410 Brain imaging, in type 2 diabetes aging-related changes, 302 pre-diabetic stages, 303-304 See also Type 2 diabetes (T2D), impact on cognitive functioning Brain insulin effects, mechanisms, 437-438 Brain metabolites, in diabetic children and adolescents, 261 See also Type 1 diabetes (T1D), in children and adolescents Brain MR spectroscopy, in DPN, 369-373

Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials

(BAEPs), 398, 399 Brain structure and cognitive functioning, in type 2 diabetic patients demographics and lifestyle, 305-306 depression, 309 genetic factors, 304-305 hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia,

307-308 microvascular and macrovascular complications, 308-309 structure anomalies, in diabetic children and adolescents, 259-261 vascular risk factors, 306-307

See also Type 2 diabetes (T2D), impact on cognitive functioning; Type 1 diabetes (T1D), in children and adolescents British Diabetic Association Cohort Study, 149

California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), 82 Carbon-11-labelled PIB) ([nC]PIB), 119 Cardiovascular risk factors, in diabetic patients, 16, 27, 40, 41, 47 See also Type 1 diabetes (T1D) Carnitine palmitoyl acetyltransferase

(CPT1), 161 Carotid stenosis, treatment, 204-206 See also Diabetes mellitus (DM) Carotid surgery, usage, 71 Cataract, in diabetic patients, 12 Catecholamines secretion, 135 CBF, see Cerebral blood flow Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

(CDC), 36 Central nervous system (CNS), 366 in diabetic neuropathy brain MR spectroscopy, 369-373 fMRI and painful-DPN, 376-379 MR perfusion imaging, 373-376 pain modulation, 379-380 spinal cord involvement, 366-369 PPAR-y, 447-448 Cerebral blood flow, 168, 230, 259 Cerebral disturbances and complications, in diabetes cognition in children and adolescents with type I diabetes (see Children and adolescents, T1D affects on brain functions) cognition in type 2 diabetes (see

Cognition, and T2D) depression, 343 background, 344 cognitive impairment, 353-354 inflammatory response and depression, 351

neuroanatomical outcome, 348-349 neurochemical result, 351-352 neuroendocrine effect, 350-351

pathophysiologic relation, 346-348 treatment, 352-358 hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, 161, 171 definition and epidemiology, 171-172

neurological complications, 173-175 therapeutic interventions, 177 hypoglycemia, 131

acquired hypoglycemia syndromes,

149-151 causes and risk factors, 142-144 and diabetic ketoacidosis, rodent models, 388-389 epidemiology, 139-142 management, 144-146 morbidity and mortality, 146-149 neuroglycopenic and autonomic symptoms, 136 in non-diabetic state, physiological changes, 133-138 prevention, 153-154 Cerebral edema and dysfunction, in DKA, 163-164, 264-265 pathophysiology, 166-168 presentation, 164 prognosis, 169-171 risk factors, 165-166 therapies, 168-169 See also Diabetic ketoacidosis Cerebral microvascular pathology, in diabetes, 288 Cerebral vascular disease (CVD), 10 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 119-120, 163 Cerebrovascular disease and stroke, 330 Children and adolescents, T1D affects on brain functions, 252 biomedical risk factors chronic hyperglycemia, 265-266 ketoacidosis, 264-265 psychological stress and mood disorder, 267 severe hypoglycemia, 262-264 future perspectives, 268-269 methodology, 253-254 neurocognitive identification brain metabolites, 261 brain structure anomalies, 259-261 CBF, 259

Children and adolescents, T1D affects on brain functions (Continued) cognitive manifestation, 256-258 electrophysiological changes, 258-259

neurocognitive phenotypes, 261-262 pathophysiological models,

267-268 school performance, 254-256 See also Adults cognitive impairments, T1D; Type 1 diabetes (T1D), in children and adolescents Cholecystokinin (CCK), 401 Cholinesterase inhibitors, in dementia treatment, 121, 438 See also Dementia Chronic hyperglycemia, in diabetic children and adolescents, 265-266 See also Type 1 diabetes (T1D), in children and adolescents Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), 13 Co-enzyme A (CoA), 161 Cognition, and T2D, 296 brain imaging aging-related changes, 302 pre-diabetic stages, 303-304 clinical care, 311-314 determinants and mechanisms demographics and lifestyle,

305-306 depression, 309 genetic factors, 304-305 hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia,

307-308 microvascular and macrovascular complications, 308-309 vascular risk factors, 306-307 pre-diabetes and cognition hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and cognition, 300 metabolic syndrome and cognition,

300-302 pre-diabetic stages, 298-300 research, 314-315

screening tests and neuropsychological examination, 296-298 treatment measures, 309-311

Cognition in diabetes, measurement, test used, 97-100 Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 358 Cognitive dysfunction, risk factors hyperglycaemia, 287-288 hypoglycaemia, 286-287 interactive effects, 288-289 See also Type 1 diabetes (T1D), cognitive impairments in adults Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), 93 Cognitive function, assessment attention, concentration and information processing speed, 86-87 functions, 84-86 intelligence, 80-81 language, 88-89

long-term memory and learning, 81-82 neuropsychological test batteries, 89-91 neuropsychological tests, 79-80 perception, 89

praxis and motor function, 87-88 psychological concepts assessment, 92-93

screening instruments, 91-92 working memory, 82-84 Cognitive impairments in adults, with T1D, 278

clinical practice, 290 cognitive dysfunction, risk factors hyperglycaemia, 287-288 hypoglycaemia, 286-287 interactive effects, 288-289 diabetic encephalopathy vs. cognitive resilience, 289-290 in diabetic middle-aged adult patients,

279-281 in diabetic older people, 282 in middle-aged adult patients, 279-281 MRI findings, 282-285 in older people, 282

psychiatric disorders prevalence, 285-286 See also Type 1 diabetes (T1D), cognitive impairments in adults Collaborative care models, usage, 358

See also Depression and diabetes Complications, of diabetes, 45-47, 97, 132, 153, 304

acquired hypoglycemia syndromes, 149 Alzheimer's disease, 324

cerebral abnormalities, 163-170, 388, 390 cognitive dysfunction, 256, 279-282 depression, 344-346 diabetic encephalopathy, 410 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 8, 9 effect on brain function and structure,

252-268 embolism, 66 foot problems, 21 hemianopsia, 174

hyperglycemic complications, 231-232 hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

(HHS), 171-176 hypoglycemia, 9, 146 musculoskeletal and macrovascular, 16-21, 34, 41, 132, 308-309 nephropathy, 13-16 neuropathy, 13 recurrent hypoglycemia, 3 retinopathy, 11-12 Computerized tomography (CT), 60 Consortium to Establish a Registry for

Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD), 90

Construct validity, definition, 80 Continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL), 259

Continuous glucose monitoring system

(CGMS), 26 Continuous Performance Task, usage, 87 Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion,

23, 24, 145 Convergent validity, 80 COOH-terminal fragment (CTF), 421 Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 233

Coronary artery disease (CAD), 10 Coronary heart disease (CHD), 45 Corsi-Block Tapping Task, usage, 83 Cortical Vision Screening Test (CORVIST), 89

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD), 111 Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), 350

Cortisol, role, 134

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), 111-112 Crystallized intelligence, 80-81 CSII, see Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion d

DCCT, see Diabetes Control and

Complication Trial Dead in bed syndrome, 147 Decompressive surgery, for ischemic stroke treatment, 64 Delirium, in ischemic stroke patients, 70-71 Dementia causes, 104 diagnosis, 112

CSF markers, 119-120 EEG, 120-121

history and physical examination,

113-114 laboratory testing, 114 neuroimaging, 115-119 neuropsychological examination, 114 PET, 119 and insulin resistance, 434, 438 AD, 439

APOE genotype, 439 ß-amyloid, 440-441 brain insulin effects, 437-438 and diabetes, 435-436 glucose and memory, 435 inflammation, 441 neurodegenerative disease, 440 obesity and FFA, 441-442 in periphery and CNS, 436-437 treatment antipsychotic medication, 122 cholinesterase inhibitors, 121 developments, 122-123 memantine, 122 types

Alzheimer's disease, 105-107 corticobasal degeneration, 111 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 111-112 dementia with Lewy bodies, 110 frontotemporal lobar degeneration, 110 mild cognitive impairment, 107-108 progressive supranuclear palsy, 111 vascular dementia, 108-109 See also Insulin resistance Dementia, and T2D, 324

caveats and evidence, 335-336 cerebrovascular disease, 330 conditions, 325-328 epidemiologic evidence

Dementia, and T2D (Continued) adiposity, 331-332 hyperinsulinemia, 332-333 metabolic syndrome, 334-335 type 2 diabetes, 333-334 Dementia, and T2D mechanisms, 329-330 non-cerebrovascular mechanism adipokines and cytokines, 331 advanced glycosylation products, 331 hyperinsulinemia, 330 prevention and treatment, 336-337 risk factors, 328-329 Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), 104, 110

2 Deoxy-2[(78)-F]-fluoro-d-glucose

(18F-FDG), 414 3-Deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 416 Depression and diabetes background, 344 cognitive impairment, 353-354 epidemiology challenges, 346 clinical outcomes, 345-346 psychiatric illnesses, 344-345 inflammatory response and depression, 351 neuroanatomical outcome, 348-349 neurochemical result, 351-352 neuroendocrine effect, 350-351 pathophysiologic relation, 346-347 clinical outcome, 348 risk factors, 347-348 treatment action mechanism, 355 antidepressants medications,

354-357 collaborative care models, 358 psychotherapies, 357-358 and vascular disease, 352-353 Dextrose drug, 145 Diabetes classification, 4

cognition measurement, 97-100 definition, 326 rodent models akita mouse model, 402 BB/Wor rat and NOD mouse models, 400

ß-cytotoxic agents, 390-400 clinical relevance, 402-403 future perspectives, 403-404 GK rat, 402 OLETF rat, 401-402 zucker rats and DB/DB mice, 401 stroke, epidemiology and prevention, 196, 205-206

stroke risk reduction, by antihypertensive treatment in, 200 Diabetes Control and Complications

Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study, 41 Diabetes Control and Complication Trial, 41, 133, 139, 143, 144, 263, 308, 310

Diabetes management, 144-146, 263, 345 comorbidities and complications reduction, 45-47 complications prevention, 40-42 Type 2 diabetes (T2D)

glycemic control, goal, 42-43 injectable therapy, 45 nutrition and physical activity, 43 older adult, diabetes management, 47-48 oral antidiabetic agents, 43-45 psychosocial screening, 48 Diabetes mellitus (DM), 221, 224, 225, 234 diagnosis, 34-36 diagnostic criteria for, 4-5 epidemiology, 36-37 improvement, 48-49 management comorbidities and complications reduction, 45-47 complications prevention, 40-42 glycemic control, goal, 42-43 injectable therapy, 45 nutrition and physical activity, 43 older adult, diabetes management, 47-48

oral antidiabetic agents, 43-45 psychosocial screening, 48 pathogenesis, 37-39 Diabetes mellitus prevention, 39-40 psychiatric comorbidity, 285-286 and stroke, 184

course and outcome, 193-196 epidemiology, 184-187, 196 mortality risk in patients with, 194-196 prevention and treatment, 197-206 risk factors, 185-192 stroke types, 192-193 Diabetes Prevention Program, 336, 449-450 Diabetic encephalopathy, 410-411 vs. cognitive resilience, 289-290 type 1 diabetes, 411-412

cerebral-evoked potentials, 412 cognitive deficits, 412-414 hyperglycemia, 414-416 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,

418-419 impaired insulin action, 416-418 pathogenetic mechanisms, 414 type 2 diabetes, 419-420 BBZDR/Wor-rat, 420-422 tau expression, 422-424 See also Type 1 diabetes (T1D), cognitive impairments in adults Diabetic ketoacidosis, 264-265 cerebral dysfunction, 163-164 cerebral edema pathophysiology, 166-168 presentation, 164 risk factors, 165-166 therapies, 168-169 choreiform movements, 175-176 neurological manifestation, 177 seizure activity, 176-177 definition and epidemiology, 160 diagnosis, 172-173 etiology and precipitating factors, 160-161, 172

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