Bgat Hypoglycemia

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2. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. Hypoglycemia in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes 1997; 46:271-286.

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4. Sommerfield AJ, Deary IJ, Frier BM. Acute hyperglycemia alters mood state and impairs cognitive performance in people with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:2335-2340.

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9. Lindgren M, Eckert B, Stenberg G, Agardh CD. Restitution of neurophysiological functions, performance, and subjective symptoms after moderate insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in non-diabetic men. Diabet Med 1996; 13:218-225.

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11. Frier BM. Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia. In: Hypoglycaemia in Clinical Diabetes, (Second edition). Frier BM, Fisher M, eds. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2007:141-170.

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13. Pedersen-Bjergaard U, Pramming S, Heller SR, et al. Severe hypoglycaemia in 1076 adult patients with type 1 diabetes: influence of risk markers and selection. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2004; 20:479-486.

14. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive insulin treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

15. The EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study Group. Microvascular and acute complications in IDDM patients: the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study. Diabetologia 1994; 37:278-285.

16. MacLeod KM, Hepburn DA, Frier BM. Frequency and morbidity of severe hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1993; 10:238-245.

17. ter Braak EWMT, Appelman AMMF, Van de Laak MF, Stolk RP, Van Haeften TW, Erkelens DW. Clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetic patients with and without severe hypoglycemia. Diabetes Care 2000; 23:1467-1471.

18. UK Hypoglycaemia Study Group. Risk of hypoglycaemia in types 1 and type 2 diabetes: effects of treatment modalities and their duration. Diabetologia 2007; 50:1140-1147.

19. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): results of feasibility study. Diabetes Care 1987; 10:1-19.

20. Zammitt NN, Frier BM. Hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes: pathophysiology, frequency, and effects of different treatment modalities. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:2948-2961.

21. Abraira C, Colwell JA, Nuttall FQ, et al. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study on glycemic control and complications in type II diabetes (VACSDM): results of the feasibility trial. Diabetes Care 1995; 18:1113-1123.

22. Leese GP, Wang J, Broomhall J, et al. (for the DARTS/MEMO Collaboration). Frequency of severe hypoglycemia requiring emergency treatment in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a population-based study of health service resource use. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:1176-1180.

23. Donnelly LA, Morris AD, Frier BM, et al. (for the DARTS/MEMO Collaboration). Frequency and predictors of hypoglycaemia in type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a population-based study. Diabet Med 2005; 22:449-455.

24. Henderson JN, Allen KV, Deary IJ, Frier BM. Hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes: frequency, symptoms and impaired awareness. Diabet Med 2003; 20:1016-1021.

25. Hepburn DA, MacLeod KM, Pell ACH, Scougal IJ, Frier BM. Frequency and symptoms of hypoglycaemia experienced by patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with insulin. Diabet Med 1993; 10:231-237.

26. Allen KV, Frier BM. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia: clinical manifestations and therapeutic strategies toward prevention. Endocrine Practice 2003; 9:530-543.

27. Heller SR. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia. In: Hypoglycaemia in Clinical Diabetes, (Second edition). Frier, B.M., Fisher, M, eds. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2007:83-99.

28. Thorsteinsson B, Pramming S, Lauritzen T, Binder C. Frequency of daytime biochemical hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated diabetic patients: relation to daily median blood glucose concentrations. Diabet Med 1986; 3:147-151.

29. The DCCT Research Group. Epidemiology of severe hypoglycemia in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Am J Med 1991; 90:450-459.

30. Jones TW, Porter P, Sherwin RS, et al. Decreased epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia during sleep. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:1657-1662.

31. Pedersen-Bjergaard U, Agerholm-Larsen B, Pramming S, Hougaard P, Thorsteinsson B. Prediction of severe hypoglycaemia by angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and genotype in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 2003; 46:89-96.

32. Zammitt NN, Geddes J, Warren RE, Marioni R, Ashby JP, Frier BM. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes: does a relationship exist? Diabet Med 2007; 24:449-454.

33. Dewan S, Gfflett A, Mugarza JA, Dovey TM, Halford JCG, Wilding JPH. Effects of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on energy intake and food choice at a subsequent test meal. Diab Metab Res Revs 2004; 20:405-410.

34. Brodows RG, Williams C, Amatruda JM. Treatment of insulin reactions in diabetics. J Am Med Assoc 1984; 252:3378-381.

35. Slama G, Traynard PY, Desplanque N, et al. The search for an optimised treatment of hypo-glycemia. Carbohydrates in tablets, solution, or gel for the correction of insulin reactions. Arch Intern Med 1990; 150:589-593.

36. MacCuish AC. Treatment of hypoglycaemia. In: Hypoglycaemia and Diabetes: Clinical and Physiological Aspects. Frier BM, Fisher BM, eds. London: Edward Arnold, 1993:212-221.

37. Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, et al. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 360:129-139.

38. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. New Engl J Med 2008; 358:2545-2559.

39. Fisher M, Heller S. Mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and possible effects of hypoglycaemia on diabetic complications. In: Hypoglycaemia in Clinical Diabetes, (Second edition). Frier BM, Fisher M, eds. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2007:265-283.

40. Tattersall RB, Gill GV. Unexplained deaths of type 1 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1991; 8:49-58.

41. MacLeod KM, Hepburn DA, Deary IJ, Goodwin GM, Dougall N, Ebmeier KP, Frier BM. Regional cerebral blood flow in IDDM patients: effects of diabetes and of recurrent severe hypoglycaemia. Diabetologia 1994; 37:257-263.

42. Strachan MWJ. Frequency, causes and risk factors for hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes. In: Hypoglycaemia in Clinical Diabetes, (Second edition). Frier BM, Fisher M, eds. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2007:49-81.

43. Bjorgaas M, Sand T, Vik T, Jorde R. Quantitative EEG during controlled hypoglycaemia in diabetic and non-diabetic children. Diabet Med 1998; 15:30-37.

44. Bottcher J, Kunze A, Kurrat C, et al. Localized reversible reduction of apparent diffusion coefficient in transient hypoglycemia-induced hemiparesis. Stroke 2005; 36:e20-e22.

45. Cordonnier C, Oppenheim C, Lamy C, Meder JF, Mas JL. Serial diffusion and perfusion-weighted MR in transient hypoglycemia. Neurology 2005; 65:175.

46. Strachan MWJ, Abraha HD, Sherwood RA, Lammie GA, Deary IJ, Ewing FME, Perros, P, Frier BM. Evaluation of serum markers of neuronal damage following severe hypoglycaemia in adults with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus. Diab/Metab Res Revs 1999; 15:5-12.

47. Laing SP, Swerdlow AJ, Slater SD, et al. The British Diabetic Association Cohort Study, II: cause-specific mortality in patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 1999; 16:466-471.

48. Cryer PE. Hypoglycaemia: the limiting factor in the management of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2002; 45:937-948.

49. Gerich JE, Bolli GB. Counterregulatory failure. In: Hypoglycaemia and Diabetes: Clinical and Physiological Aspects. Frier BM, Fisher BM, eds. London: Edward Arnold; 1993:253-267.

50. White NH, Skor DA, Cryer PE, Levandoski LA, Bier DM, Santiago JV. Identification of type 1 diabetic patients at increased risk for hypoglycemia during intensive therapy. New Engl J Med 1983;308:485-491.

51. Bolli GB, Tsalikian E, Haymond MW, Cryer PE, Gerich JE. Defective glucose counterreg-ulation after subcutaneous insulin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1984;73:1532-1541.

52. Ryder RE, Owens DR, Hayes TM, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. Unawareness of hypoglycaemia and inadequate hypoglycaemic counterregulation: no causal relation with diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Br Med J 1990; 301:783-787.

53. Hepburn DA, Patrick AW, Eadington DW, Ewing DJ, Frier BM. Unawareness of hypogly-caemia in insulin-treated diabetic patients: prevalence and relationship to autonomic neuropathy. Diabet Med 1990; 7:711-717.

54. Cox D.J, Gonder-Frederick L, Polonsky W, Schlundt D, Kovatchev B, Clarke W. Blood glucose awareness training (BGAT-2). Long term benefits. Diabetes Care 2001; 24:637-642.

55 Geddes J, Schopman JE, Zammitt NN, Frier BM. Prevalence of impaired awareness ofhypo-glycaemia in adults with Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 2008; 25:501-504.

56. Gold AE, MacLeod KM, Frier BM. Frequency of severe hypoglycemia in patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. Diabetes Care 1994; 17:697-703.

57. Segel SA, Paramore DA, Cryer PE. Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in advanced type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2002; 51:724-733.

58. Cryer PE. Diverse causes of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in diabetes. N Engl J Med 2004; 350:2272-2279.

59. Wild D, von Maltzahn R, Brohan E, Christensen T, Clauson P, Gonder-Frederick L. A critical review of the literature on fear of hypoglycemia in diabetes: implications for diabetes management and patient education. Patient Education and Counseling 2007; 68:10-15.

60. Frier BM. Living with hypoglycaemia. In: Hypoglycaemia in Clinical Diabetes, (Second edition). Frier BM, Fisher M, eds. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 2007:309-332.

61. Frier BM. How hypoglycaemia can affect the Life of a person with diabetes. Diab Metab Res Revs 2008; 24:87-92.

62. Cox DJ, Gonder-Frederick LA, Kovatchev B, Julian DM, Clarke WL. Progressive hypo-glycemia's impact on driving simulation performance. Occurrence, awareness and correction. Diabetes Care 2000; 23:163-170.

63. Graveling AJ, Warren RE, Frier BM. Hypoglycaemia and driving in people with insulin-treated diabetes: adherence to recommendations for avoidance. Diabet Med 2004; 21:1014-1019.

64. Siebenhofer A, Plank J, Berghold A, et al. Meta-analysis of short-acting insulin analogues in adult patients with type 1 diabetes: continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus injection therapy. Diabetologia 2004; 47:1895-1905.

65. Pickup JC, Sutton A.J. Severe hypoglycaemia and glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes: meta-analysis of multiple daily insulin injections compared with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabet Med 2008; 25:765-774.

66. Klonoff DC. Continuous glucose monitoring. Roadmap for 21st century diabetes therapy. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:1231-1239.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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