Esther van den Berg Yael D Reijmer and Geert Jan Biessels

Contents

Introduction

Cognitive Functioning in Type 2

Diabetes Pre-Diabetes and Cognition Brain Imaging in Type 2 Diabetes Determinants and Mechanisms Treatment Opportunities Implications for Clinical Care Conclusions and Directions for Further Research References

Abstract

This chapter addresses the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on cognitive functioning. It covers the nature and severity of cognitive decrements in relation to diabetes and "pre-diabetic stages." Possible risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms, such as vascular risk factors, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, microvascular and macrovascular complications, depression, genetic factors, and lifestyle, will be examined. Moreover, the chapter provides a description of structural changes in the brain, such as infarcts, white-matter hyperintensities, and brain atrophy in relation to diabetes and cognitive

From: Contemporary Diabetes: Diabetes and the Brain Edited by: G. J. Biessels, J. A. Luchsinger (eds.), DOI 10.1007/978-1-60327-850-8_12 © Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

functioning. In the final sections of the chapter the implications for clinical practice and directions for future research will be discussed.

Keywords: Cognitive functioning; Pre-diabetic stages; Metabolic syndrome; Brain imaging; Treatment; Clinical care.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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