Increased intracranial pressure with cerebral edema has been recognized as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients with DKA (59). Mortality from DKA-related cerebral edema in children is high, up to 90% (26, 31, 33, 35, 60) and accounts for 60-90% of the mortality seen in DKA (28, 31, 35). DKA-related cerebral edema also accounts for a
high percentage of morbidity since many patients are left with major neurological deficits (28,31,35). In a large retrospective series published in 1990, cerebral edema was associated with a 64% case fatality rate, 9% survival with minor disabilities, and 13% survival with severe disability or vegetative state (31).
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