Diagnosis

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) diagnostic criteria for diabetes and the two high-risk categories of pre-diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), updated in 2003 are defined in Table 1 (1). There are three ways to diagnose diabetes. Because of simplicity of use, acceptability to patients, and low cost, the fasting plasma glucose (PG) is the preferred diagnostic test. In the presence of symptoms of diabetes (polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, etc.), a casual plasma glucose of greater or equal than 200mg/dl is diagnostic. The 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is more sensitive and modestly more specific than fasting PG, but it is less reproducible and less frequently performed in clinical settings. In the absence of unequivocal hyperglycemia, any test used to diagnose diabetes must be confirmed on a subsequent day by a PG measured either in the fasting state or 2 h after an oral glucose load.

Table 1

The diagnostic criteria for diabetes and the classification of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)

Table 1

The diagnostic criteria for diabetes and the classification of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)

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