Take other tests for your diabetes Urine tests

You may need to check your urine if you're sick or if your blood glucose is over 240. A urine test will tell you if you have ketones in your urine. Your body makes ketones when there isn't enough insulin in your blood. Ketones can make you very sick. Call your doctor right away if you find moderate or large amounts of ketones, along with high blood glucose levels, when you do a urine test. You may have a serious condition called ketoacidosis. If it isn't treated, it can cause death. Signs of ketoacidosis are vomiting, weakness, fast breathing, and a sweet smell on the breath. Ketoacidosis is more likely to develop in people with type 1 diabetes.

You can buy strips for testing ketones at a drug store. Your doctor or diabetes educator will show you how to use them.

The A1C test

Another test for blood glucose, the A1C, also called the hemoglobin A1C test, shows what your overall blood glucose was for the past 3 months. It shows how much glucose is sticking to your red blood cells. The doctor does this test to see what your blood glucose is most of the time. Have this test done at least twice a year.

Ask your doctor what your A1C test showed. A result of under 7 usually means that your diabetes treatment is working well and your blood glucose is under control. If your A1C is 8 or above, it means that your blood glucose may be too high. You'll then have a greater risk of getting diabetes problems, like kidney damage. You may need a change in your meal plan, physical activity plan, or diabetes medicine.

A1C results

Target for most people under 7

Time to change my diabetes care plan 8 or above

My last result _

My target _

Talk with your doctor about what your target should be. Even if your A1C is higher than your target, remember that every step toward your goal helps reduce your risk of diabetes problems.

Make copies of the daily diabetes record on page 29. Then write down the results of your blood glucose checks every day. You may also want to write down what you ate, how you felt, and whether you exercised.

ACTION STEPS...

IF YOU USE INSULIN

Keep a daily record of

CC your blood glucose numbers

CC the times of the day you took insulin

CC the amount and type of insulin you took

CC whether you had ketones in your urine

By keeping daily records of your blood glucose checks, you can tell how well you're taking care of your diabetes. Show your blood glucose records to your health care team. They can use your records to see whether you need changes in your diabetes medicines or in your meal plan. If you don't know what your results mean, ask your health care team.

Things to write down every day in your record book are

• results of your blood glucose checks

• your diabetes medicines: times and amounts taken

• if your blood glucose was very low (see page 32)

• if you ate more or less food than you usually do

• if you found ketones in your urine

• what kind of physical activity you did and for how long

ACTION STEPS...

IF YOU DON'T USE INSULIN

Keep a daily record of

( your blood glucose numbers

( the times of the day you took your diabetes pills

( your physical activity

Week Starting

Daily diabetes record page April 10, 2 006

Other Blood Glucose

Breakfast Blood Glucose

Medicine

Lunch Blood Glucose

Medicine

Dinner Blood Glucose

Medicine

Bedtime Blood Glucose

Medicine

Notes: (Special events, sick days, physical activity)

Monday

109

122

115

Tuesday

Ç

106 4

152*

*M-i*sd -evening wlk.

Wednesday

126

121

131

>/

120

Thursday

113

128

179

241*

With flu

Friday

159

147

162

150

Saturday

127

152*

*Had -extra-•big -snack- /vn .afternoon.

Sunday

119

121

140

Sample of a record page for a person who doesn't use insulin or diabetes pills.

Week Starting

Daily diabetes record page

Other Blood Glucose

Breakfast Blood Glucose

Medicine

Lunch Blood Glucose

Medicine

Dinner Blood Glucose

Medicine

Bedtime Blood Glucose

Medicine

Notes: (Special events, sick days, physical activity)

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

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