References

1. Creutzfeldt W. The incretin concept today. Diabetologia 1979; 16:75-85.

2. Zunz E, LaBarre J. Contibutions a l'etude des variations physiologiques de la secretion externe et interne du pancreas. Arch Int Physiol Biochim. 1929; 31:20-44.

3. Unger RH, Eisentraut AM. Entero-insular axis. Arch Intern Med 1969; 123:261-66.

4. Nauck MA, Homberger E, Siegel EG, et al. Incretin effects of increasing glucose loads in man calculated from venous insulin and C-peptide responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986; 63:492-98.

5. Creutzfeldt W. Entero-insular axis and diabetes mellitus. Horm Metab Res 1992; Suppl 26:13-8.

6. Meier JJ, Nauck MA, Schmidt WE, Gallwitz B. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide: the neglected incretin revisited. Regul Pept 2002; 107:1-13.

7. Pederson RA, Schubert HE, Brown JC. The insulinotropic action of gastric inhibitory polypeptide. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1975; 53:217-23.

8. Miyawaki K, Yamada Y, Yano H, et al. Glucose intolerance caused by a defect in the entero-insular axis: a study in gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96:14843-47.

9. Miyawaki K, Yamada Y, Ban N, et al. Inhibition of gastric inhibitory polypeptide signaling prevents obesity. Nat Med 2002; 8:738-42.

10. Bell GI, Sanchez-Pescador R, Laybourn PJ, Najarian RC. Exon duplication and divergence in the human preproglucagon gene. Nature 1983; 304:368-71.

11. Holst JJ, Bersani M, Johnsen AH, Kofod H, Hartmann B, Orskov C. Proglucagon processing in porcine and human pancreas. J Biol Chem 1994; 269:18827-33.

12. Kreymann B, Williams G, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. Glucagon-like peptide-1 7-36: a physiological incretin in man. Lancet 1987; 2:1300-04.

13. Schmidt WE, Siegel EG, Creutzfeldt W. Glucagon-like peptide-1 but not glucagon-like peptide-2 stimulates insulin release from isolated rat pancreatic islets. Diabetologia 1985; 28:704-7.

14. Nauck MA, Bartels E, Orskov C, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Additive insulinotropic effects of exogenous synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide infused at near-physiological insulinotropic hormone and glucose concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993; 76:912-17.

15. Wettergren A, Schjoldager B, Mortensen PE, Myhre J, Christiansen J, Holst JJ. Truncated GLP-1 (proglucagon 78-107-amide) inhibits gastric and pancreatic functions in man. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38: 665-73.

16. Nauck MA, Niedereichholz U, Ettler R, et al. Glucagon-like peptide 1 inhibition of gastric emptying outweighs its insulinotropic effects in healthy humans. Am J Physiol 1997; 273:E981-88.

17. Schirra J, Kuwert P, Wank U, et al. Differential effects of subcutaneous GLP-1 on gastric emptying, antroduodenal motility, and pancreatic function in men. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 1997; 109:84-97.

18. Meier JJ, Gallwitz B, Salmen S, et al. Normalization of glucose concentrations and deceleration of gastric emptying after solid meals during intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88:2719-25.

19. Vilsboll T, Krarup T, Madsbad S, Holst JJ. Both GLP-1 and GIP are insulinotropic at basal and postprandial glucose levels and contribute nearly equally to the incretin effect of a meal in healthy subjects. Regul Pept 2003; 114:115-21.

20. Scrocchi LA, Brown TJ, MaClusky N, et al. Glucose intolerance but normal satiety in mice with a null mutation in the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor gene. Nat Med 1996; 2:1254-58.

21. Schirra J, Sturm K, Leicht P, Arnold R, Goke B, Katschinski M. Exendin(9-39)amide is an antagonist of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide in humans. J Clin Invest 1998; 101:1421-30.

22. Nauck MA, Heimesaat MM, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7-36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1993; 91:301-7.

23. Meier JJ, Hucking K, Holst JJ, Deacon CF, Schmiegel WH, Nauck MA. Reduced insulinotropic effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2001; 50:2497-2504.

24. Lam NT, Kieffer TJ. The multifaceted potential of glucagon-like peptide-1 as a therapeutic agent. Minerva Endocrinol 2002; 27:79-93.

25. Drucker DJ, Philippe J, Mojsov S, Chick WL, Habener JF. Glucagon-like peptide I stimulates insulin gene expression and increases cyclic AMP levels in a rat islet cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84:3434-38.

26. Drucker DJ. The biology of incretin hormones. Cell Metab 2006; 3:153-165.

27. Gutniak M, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Ahren B, Efendic S. Antidiabetogenic effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 1316-22.

28. Nathan DM, Schreiber E, Fogel H, Mojsov S, Habener JF. Insulinotropic action of glucagon-like peptide-I-(7-37) in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 1992; 15:270-76.

29. Nauck MA, Kleine N, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Willms B, Creutzfeldt W. Normalization of fasting hyperglycaemia by exogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36 amide) in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia 1993; 36:741-44.

30. Holst JJ. Glucagon-like peptide-1, a gastrointestinal hormone with a pharmaceutical potential. Curr Med Chem 1999; 6:1005-17.

31. Vilsboll T, Krarup T, Madsbad S, Holst JJ. No reactive hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetic patients after subcutaneous administration of GLP-1 and intravenous glucose. Diabet Med 2001; 18:144-49.

32. Matsuyama T, Komatsu R, Namba M, Watanabe N, Itoh H, Tarui S. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36 amide): a potent glucagonostatic and insulinotropic hormone. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1988; 5: 281-84.

33. Meier JJ, Nauck MA. The potential role of glucagon-like peptide 1 in diabetes. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2004; 5:402-10.

34. DeFronzo RA. Lilly lecture 1987. The triumvirate: beta-cell, muscle, liver. A collusion responsible for NIDDM. Diabetes 1988; 37:667-87.

35. Nauck MA, Heimesaat MM, Behle K, et al. Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on counterregulatory hormone responses, cognitive functions, and insulin secretion during hyperinsulinemic, stepped hypoglycemic clamp experiments in healthy volunteers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87:1239-46.

36. Gallwitz B. Glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treat Endocrinol 2005; 4:361-70.

37. Turton MD, O'Shea D, Gunn I, et al. A role for glucagon-like peptide-1 in the central regulation of feeding. Nature 1996; 379:69-72.

38. Zander M, Madsbad S, Madsen JL, Holst JJ. Effect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study. Lancet 2002; 359:824-30.

39. Gutzwiller JP, Degen L, Matzinger D, Prestin S, Beglinger C. Interaction between GLP-1 and CCK-33 in inhibiting food intake and appetite in men. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2004; 287: R562-67.

40. Gutzwiller JP, Degen L, Heuss L, Beglinger C. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and eating. Physiol Behav 2004; 82:17-19.

41. Perfetti R, Hui H. The role of GLP-1 in the life and death of pancreatic beta cells. Horm Metab Res 2004; 36:804-10.

42. Brubaker PL, Drucker DJ. Minireview: Glucagon-like peptides regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in the pancreas, gut, and central nervous system. Endocrinology 2004; 145:2653-59.

43. Drucker DJ. Glucagon-like peptides: regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mol Endocrinol 2003; 17:161-71.

44. Wang Q, Li L, Xu E, Wong V, Rhodes C, Brubaker PL. Glucagon-like peptide-1 regulates proliferation and apoptosis via activation of protein kinase B in pancreatic INS-1 beta cells. Diabetologia 2004; 47: 478-87.

45. Fineman MS, Bicsak TA, Shen LZ, et al. Effect on glycemic control of exenatide (synthetic exendin-4) additive to existing metformin and/or sulfonylurea treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003; 26:2370-77.

46. Farilla L, Bulotta A, Hirshberg B. et al. Glucagon-like peptide 1 inhibits cell apoptosis and improves glucose responsiveness of freshly isolated human islets. Endocrinology 2003; 144:5149-58.

47. Nauck M, Stockmann F, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Reduced incretin effect in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 1986; 29:46-52.

48. Vilsboll T, Krarup T, Deacon CF, Madsbad S, Holst JJ. Reduced postprandial concentrations of intact biologically active glucagon-like peptide 1 in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes 2001; 50:609-13.

49. Nauck MA, Sauerwald A, Ritzel R, Holst JJ, Schmiegel W. Influence of glucagon-like peptide 1 on fasting glycemia in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin after sulfonylurea secondary failure. Diabetes Care 1998; 21:1925-31.

50. Madsbad S, Schmitz O, Ranstam J, Jakobsen G, Matthews DR. Improved glycemic control with no weight increase in patients with type 2 diabetes after once-daily treatment with the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 analog liraglutide (NN2211): a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:1335-42.

51. Holz GGt, Kuhtreiber WM, Habener JF. Pancreatic beta-cells are rendered glucose-competent by the insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1(7-37). Nature 1993; 361:362-65.

52. Nauck MA, Wollschlager D, Werner J, Holst JJ, Orskov C, Creutzfeldt W, et al. Effects of subcutaneous glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 [7-36 amide]) in patients with NIDDM. Diabetologia 1996; 39:1546-53.

53. Mentlein R, Gallwitz B, Schmidt WE. Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV hydrolyses gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide, peptide histidine methionine and is responsible for their degradation in human serum. Eur J Biochem 1993; 214:829-35.

54. Deacon CF, Johnsen AH, Holst JJ. Degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 by human plasma in vitro yields an N-terminally truncated peptide that is a major endogenous metabolite in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80:952-57.

55. Meier JJ, Gallwitz B, Nauck MA. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide: potential applications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. BioDrugs 2003; 17:93-102.

56. Joy SV, Rodgers PT, Scates AC. Incretin Mimetics as Emerging Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes (January). Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39(1):110-18.

57. Baggio LL, Huang Q, Brown TJ, Drucker DJ. A recombinant human glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1-albumin protein (albugon) mimics peptidergic activation of GLP-1 receptor-dependent pathways coupled with satiety, gastrointestinal motility, and glucose homeostasis. Diabetes 2004; 53:2492-2500.

58. Bergman AJ, Stevens C, Zhou Y, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of multiple oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in healthy male volunteers. Clin Ther 2006; 28:55-72.

59. Goke R, Fehmann HC, Linn T, et al. Exendin-4 is a high potency agonist and truncated exendin-(9-39)-amide an antagonist at the glucagon-like peptide 1-(7-36)-amide receptor of insulin-secreting beta-cells. J Biol Chem 1993; 268:19650-55.

60. Kolterman OG, Buse JB, Fineman MS, et al. Synthetic exendin-4 (exenatide) significantly reduces postprandial and fasting plasma glucose in subjects with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88:3082-89.

61. DeFronzo RA, Ratner RE, Han J, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron AD. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control and weight over 30 weeks in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:1092-1100.

62. Buse JB, Henry RR, Han J, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron AD. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in sulfonylurea-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:2628-35.

63. Barnett AH. Exenatide. Drugs Today (Barc) 2005; 41:563-578.

64. Heine RJ, Van Gaal LF, Johns D, Mihm MJ, Widel MH, Brodows RG. Exenatide versus insulin glargine in patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2005; 143:559-69.

65. Kolterman OG, Kim DD, Shen L, et al. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of exenatide in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2005; 62:173-81.

66. Kendall DM, Riddle MC, Rosenstock J. et al. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and a sulfonylurea. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:1083-91.

67. Fehse F, Trautmann M, Holst JJ. et al. Exenatide augments first- and second-phase insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose in subjects with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 5991-97.

68. Kim D, Macconell L, Zhuang D. et al. Safety and Effects of a Once-Weekly, Long-Acting Release Formulation of Exenatide over 15 Weeks in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes 2006; 55 (Suppl. 1):A116.

69. Mark M. NN-2211 Novo Nordisk. IDrugs 2003; 6:251-58.

70. Bregenholt S, Moldrup A, Blume N, et al. The long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, inhibits beta-cell apoptosis in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 330:577-84.

71. Sturis J, Gotfredsen CF, Romer J, et al. GLP-1 derivative liraglutide in rats with beta-cell deficiencies: influence of metabolic state on beta-cell mass dynamics. Br J Pharmacol 2003; 140:123-32.

72. Gedulin BR, Nikoulina SE, Smith PA, et al. Exenatide (exendin-4) improves insulin sensitivity and {beta}-cell mass in insulin-resistant obese fa/fa Zucker rats independent of glycemia and body weight. Endocrinology 2005; 146:2069-76.

73. Kim JG, Baggio LL, Bridon DP, et al. Development and characterization of a glucagon-like peptide 1-albumin conjugate: the ability to activate the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor in vivo. Diabetes 2003; 52:751-9.

74. Feinglos MN, Saad MF, Pi-Sunyer FX, An B, Santiago O. Effects of liraglutide (NN2211), a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, on glycaemic control and bodyweight in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2005; 22:1016-23.

75. Marguet D, Baggio L, Kobayashi T, et al. Enhanced insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance in mice lacking CD26. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97:6874-79.

76. Reimer MK, Holst JJ, Ahren B. Long-term inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV improves glucose tolerance and preserves islet function in mice. Eur J Endocrinol 2002; 146:717-27.

77. Mest HJ. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors can restore glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetics via incretin enhancement. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2006; 7:338-43.

78. Augeri DJ, Robl JA, Betebenner DA, et al. Discovery and preclinical profile of Saxagliptin (BMS-477118): a highly potent, long-acting, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Med Chem 2005; 48:5025-37.

79. Ahren B, Gomis R, Standl E, Mills D, Schweizer A. Twelve- and 52-week efficacy of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor LAF237 in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:2874-80.

80. Kim D, Wang L, Beconi M, et al. (2R)-4-oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a] pyrazin -7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine: a potent, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Med Chem 2005; 48:141-51.

81. Ahren B. What mediates the benefits associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibition? Diabetologia 2005; 48:605-7.

82. Nauck MA, El-Ouaghlidi A. The therapeutic actions of DPP-IV inhibition are not mediated by glucagon-like peptide-1. Diabetologia 2005; 48:608-11.

83. Holst JJ, Deacon CF. Glucagon-like peptide-1 mediates the therapeutic actions of DPP-IV inhibitors. Diabetologia 2005; 48:612-15.

84. Filipsson K, Kvist-Reimer M, Ahren B. The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and islet function. Diabetes 2001; 50:1959-69.

85. Akesson L, Ahren B, Manganiello VC, Holst LS, Edgren G, Degerman E. Dual effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and isoproterenol on lipid metabolism and signaling in primary rat adipocytes. Endocrinology 2003; 144:5293-99.

86. Villhauer EB, Brinkman JA, Naderi GB, et al. 1-[[(3-hydroxy-1-adamantyl)amino]acetyl]-2-cyano-(S)-pyrrolidine: a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor with antihyperglycemic properties. J Med Chem 2003; 46:2774-89.

87. Deacon CF, Holst JJ. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition as an approach to the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes: a historical perspective. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 294:1-4.

88. Meier JJ, Gallwitz B, Schmidt WE, Nauck MA. Glucagon-like peptide 1 as a regulator of food intake and body weight: therapeutic perspectives. Eur J Pharmacol 2002; 440:269-79.

89. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:393-403.

90. Nielsen LL. Incretin mimetics and DPP-IV inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Drug Discov Today 2005; 10:703-10.

91. Ahren B, Landin-Olsson M, Jansson PA, Svensson M, Holmes D, Schweizer A. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 reduces glycemia, sustains insulin levels, and reduces glucagon levels in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:2078-84.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment