1. Knowles HC. Diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence. Med Clin N Amer 1971; 55:975-87.

2. Pinhas-Hamiel O, Dolan LM, Daniels SR, et al. Increased incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among adolescents. J Pediatr 1996; 128:608-15.

3. Savage PJ, Bennett PH, Senter RG, Miller M. High prevalence of diabetes in young Pima Indians. Diabetes 1979; 28:937-42.

4. Dabelea D, Hanson RL, Bennett PH, et al. Increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in American Indian children. Diabetologia 1998; 41:904-10.

5. Dean HJ. NIDDM-Y in First Nation children in Canada. Clin Pediatr 1998; 39:89-96.

6. Rosenbloom AL, Joe JR, Young RS, Winter WE: The emerging epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:345-54.

7. Scott CR, Smith JM, Cradock MM, Pihoker C. Characteristics of youth-onset noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus at diagnosis. Pediatrics 1997; 100:84-91.

8. Neufeld ND, Raffal LF, Landon C, et al. Early presentation of type 2 diabetes in Mexican-American youth. Diabetes Care 1998; 21:80-6.

9. Macaluso CJ, Bauer UE, Deeb LC, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus among Florida children and adolescents, 1994 through 1998. Public Health Reports 2002; 117:373-9.

10. Kadiki OA, Reddy MR, Marzouk AA. Incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) (0-34 years at onset) in Benghazi, Libya. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1996; 32:165-73.

11. Chan JCN, Cheung CK, Swaminathan R, et al. Obesity, albuminuria, and hypertension among Hong Kong Chinese with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Postgrad Med J 1993; 69:204-10.

12. Kitagawa T, Owada M, Urakami T, Yamauchi K. Increased incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus among Japanese schoolchildren correlates with an increased intake of animal protein and fat. Clin Pediatr 1998; 37:111-5.

13. Sayeed MA, Hussain MZ, Banu A, et al. Prevalence of diabetes in a suburban population of Bangladesh. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1997; 34:149-55.

14. Braun B, Zimmerman MB, Kretchmer N, et al. Risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in young Australian aborigines. A 5-year follow-up study. Diabetes Care 1996; 19:472-9.

15. McGrath NM, Parker GN, Dawson P. Early presentation of type 2 diabetes mellitus in young New Zealand Maori. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1999; 43:205-9.

16. Ehtisham S, Barrett TG, Shawl NJ. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in UK children - an emerging problem. Diabetic Med 2000; 17:867-71.

17. Pinhas-Hamiel O, Zeitler P. The global spread of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. J Pediatr 2005; 146:693-700.

18. Troiano RP, Flegal KM. Overweight children and adolescents: description, epidemiology, and demographics. Pediatrics 1998; 101:497-504.

19. Freedman DS, Srinivasan SR, Valdez RA, Williamson DF, Berenson GS. Secular increases in relative weight and obesity among children over two decades: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 1997; 99:420-6.

20. Strauss RS, Pollack HA. Epidemic increase in childhood overweight, 1986-1998. JAMA 2001; 286: 2845-8.

21. Wang Y. Cross-national comparison of childhood obesity: the epidemic and the relationship between obesity and socioeconomic status. Int J Epidemiology 2001; 30:1129-36.

22. Cheng TO. Childhood obesity in China. Health and Place 2004; 10:395-6.

23. Livingstone B. Epidemiology of childhood obesity in Europe. Eur J Pediatr 2000; 159(Suppl 1): S14-34.

24. Malecka-Tendera E, Mazur A. Childhood obesity: a pandemic of the twenty-first century. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006;30(Suppl 2):S1-3.

25. Winter WE. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the MODY syndromes. Pediatr Diabetes 2000; 1:88-117.

26. Winter WE, Maclaren NK, Riley WJ, et al. Maturity onset diabetes of youth in black Americans. N Engl J Med 1987; 316:285-91.

27. The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: S5-20.

28. Rosenbloom AL, Kohrman A, Sperling M. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. J Pediatr 1981; 98:320-3.

29. Pinhas-Hamiel O, Dolan LM, Zeitler PS. Diabetic ketoacidosis among obese African American adolescents with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1997; 28:484-6.

30. American Diabetes Association. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents: Consensus conference report. Diabetes Care 2000; 23:381-9.

31. Feeney SJ, Myers MA, Mackay IR, et al. Evaluation of ICA512As in combination with other islet cell autoantibodies at the onset of IDDM. Diabetes Care 1997; 20:1403-7.

32. Neel JV. Diabetes mellitus: a "thrifty" genotype rendered detrimental by "progress"? Am J Hum Genet 1962; 14:353-62.

33. Lev-Ran A. Thrifty genotype: how applicable is it to obesity and type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Reviews 1999; 7:1-22.

34. Phipps K, Barker DJP. Fetal growth and impaired glucose tolerance in men and women. Diabetologia 1993; 36:225-8.

35. Philips DIW, Barker DJP, Hales CN, et al. Thinness at birth and insulin resistance in adult life. Diabetologia 1994; 37:150-4.

36. Lithell HO, McKeigue PM, Gerglund L, et al. Relation at birth to non-insulin-dependent diabetes and insulin concentrations in men aged 50-60 years. Brit Med J 1996; 312:406-10.

37. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. Birth weight and adult hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity in US men. Circulation 1996; 94:3246-50.

38. Ravelli AC, van der Meulen JH, Michels RP, et al. Glucose tolerance in adults after prenatal exposure to famine. Lancet 1998; 351:173-7.

39. Levitt NS, Lambert EV, Woods D, et al. Impaired glucose tolerance and elevated blood pressure in low birth weight, nonobese, young South African adults: early programming of cortisol axis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85:4611-8.

40. Dabelea D, Pettitt DJ, Hanson RL, et al. Birthweight, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance in Pima Indian children and young adults. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:944-50.

41. Bavdekar A, Yajnik CS, Fall CHD, et al. Insulin resistance syndrome in 8-year-old Indian children. Small at birth, big at 8 years, or both? Diabetes 1999; 48:2422-9.

42. Rosenbloom AL. Fetal nutrition and insulin sensitivity: the genetic and environmental aspects of "thrift". J Pediatr 2002; 141:459-62.

43. Svec F, Nastasi K, Hilton C, et al. Black-white contrasts and insulin levels during pubertal development: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Diabetes 1992; 41:313-7.

44. Jiang X, Srinivasan SR, Radhakrishnamurthy B, et al. Racial (black-white) differences in insulin secretion and clearance in adolescents: the Bogalusa heart study. Pediatrics 1996; 97:357-60.

45. Arslanian S. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy African-American vs. American-white children. Clin Pediatr 1998; 37:81-8.

46. Danadian K, Lewy V, Janosky JJ, Arslanian S. Lipolysis in African-American children: is it a metabolic risk factor predisposing to obesity? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:3022-6.

47. Danadian K, Balasekaran G, Lewy V, et al. Insulin sensitivity in African-American children with and without a family history of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:1325-9.

48. Pinhas-Hamiel O, Standiford D, Hamiel D, et al. The type 2 family. A setting for development and treatment of adolescent type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153:1063-7.

49. Silverman BL, Metzger BE, Cho NH, Loeb CA. Impaired glucose tolerance in adolescent offspring of diabetic mothers. Relationship to fetal hyperinsulinism. Diabetes Care 1995; 18:611-7.

50. Pettitt DJ, Aleck KA, Baird HR, et al. Congenital susceptibility to NIDDM: Role of intrauterine environment. Diabetes 1988; 37:622-8.

51. Fagot-Campagna A, Pettitt DJ, Engelgau MM, et al. Type 2 diabetes among North American children and adolescents: An epidemiological review and a public health perspective. J Pediat 2000; 136:664-72.

52. Rosenbloom AL, Wheeler L, Bianchi R, et al. Age adjusted analysis of insulin responses during normal and abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests in children and adolescents. Diabetes 1975; 24: 820-8.

53. Caprio S, Tamborlane WV. Metabolic impact of obesity in childhood. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1999; 28:731-47.

54. Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Dodson WC, Dunaif A. Prevalence and predictors of risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, controlled study in 254 affected women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:165-169.

55. Lewy V, Danadian K, Arslanian SA. Early metabolic abnormalities in adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Ped Res 1999; 45:93A.

56. Lewy V, Danadian K, Arslanian SA. Roles of insulin resistance and B-cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of glucose intolerance in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetes 1999; 48:A292.

57. Banerjee S, Raghavan S, Wasserman EJ, et al. Hormonal findings in African-American and Caribbean Hispanic girls with premature adrenarche: implications for polycystic ovarian syndrome. Pediatrics 1998; 102:E36.

58. Vuguin P, Linder B, Rosenfeld RG, et al. The roles of insulin sensitivity, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-1 and-3 in the hyperandrogenism of African American and Caribbean Hispanic girls with premature adrenarche. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 2037-42.

59. Ibanez L, Potau N, Marcos MV, deZegher F. Exaggerated adrenarche and hyperinsulinism in adolescent girls born small for gestational age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:4739-41.

60. Bennett F, Watson-Brown C, Thame M, et al. Shortness at birth is associated with insulin resistance in prepubertal Jamaican children. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56:506-11.

61. Ibanez L, Castell C, Tresserras R, Potau N. Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in first-degree relatives of girls with a history of precocious pubarche. Clin Endocrinol 1999; 51:395-401.

62. Fletcher RH, Fletcher SW, Wagner EH. Clinical Epidemiology, the essentials. 2nd edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1988.

63. Sackett DL, Holland WW. Controversy in detection of disease. Lancet 1965; 2:357-9.

64. Duncan GE. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose among US adolescents: 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006; 160:523-8.

65. Tirosh A, Shai I, Tekes-Manova D, Israeli E, et al., for the Israeli Diabetes Research Group. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:1454-62.

66. Troiano RP, Flegal KM. Overweight children and adolescents: description, epidemiology, and demographics. Pediatrics 1998; 101(suppl):497-504.

67. Reilly JJ, Dorosty AR. Epidemic of obesity in UK children. Lancet 1999; 354:1874-5.

68. Cook VV, Hurley JS. Prevention of type 2 diabetes in childhood. Clin Pediat 1998; 37:123-9.

69. Teufel NI, Ritenbaugh CK. Development of a primary prevention program: insight gained in the Zuni Diabetes Prevention Program. Clin Pediat 1998; 37:131-41.

70. Macaulay AC, Paradis G, Potvin L, et al. The Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project: intervention, evaluation and baseline results of a diabetes primary prevention program with a native community in Canada. Preventive Medicine 1997; 26:779-90.

71. Joe JR. Perceptions of diabetes by Indian adolescents. In: Joe JR, Young RS, eds. Diabetes as a disease of civilization: the impact of culture change on indigenous peoples. Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin, 1994: pp. 329-56.

72. Daniels S. Pharmacological treatment of obesity in paediatric patients. Paediatr Drugs 2001; 3: 405-10.

73. Chanoine JP, Hampl S, Jensen C, Boldrin M, Hauptman, J. Effect of orlistat on weight and body composition in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005; 293:2873-83.

74. Freemark M, Bursey D. The effects of metformin on body mass index and glucose tolerance in obese adolescents with fasting hyperinsulinemia and a family history of type 2 diabetes. Pediatrics 2001; 107:E55.

75. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. New Engl J Med 2002; 346:393-403.

76. Leung WY, Neil Thomas G, Chan JC, Tomlinson B. Weight management and current options in pharmacotherapy: orlistat and sibutramine. Clin Ther 2003; 25:58-80.

77. Thearle M, Aronne LJ. Obesity and pharmacologic therapy. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2003; 32:1005-24.

78. Bray GA, Hollander P, Klein S, Kushner R, Levy B, Fitchet M, Perry BH. A 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of topiramate for weight loss in obesity. Obes Res 2003; 11: 722-33.

79. Batterham RL, Cohen MA, Ellis SM, Le Roux CW, Withers DJ, Frost GS, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR. Inhibition of food intake in obese subjects by peptide YY3-36. N Engl J Med 2003; 349:941-8.

80. Esposito K, Giugliano D. Effect of rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk. Lancet 2005; 366:367-8; author reply 369-70.

81. Huerta MG, Roemmich JN, Kington ML, et al. Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese children. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:1175-81.

82. Inge TH, Zeller M, Garcia VF, Daniels SR. Surgical approach to adolescent obesity. Adolesc Med Clin 2004; 15:429-53.

83. Silverstein JH, Rosenbloom AL. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. J Ped Endocrinol Metab 2000; 13:1403-9.

84. DeFronzo RA, Goodman AM. Efficacy of metformin in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The multicenter metformin study group. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:541-9.

85. Jones K, Arslanian S, McVie R, et al. Metformin improves glycemic control in children with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 25:89-94.

86. Timmins P, Donahue S, Meeker J, Marathe P. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of a novel extended-release metformin formulation. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005; 44:721-9.

87. Lebovitz HE. Insulin secretagogues, old and new. Diabetes Reviews 1999; 7:139-52.

88. Gottschalk M, Danne T, Cara J, Vlajinic A, Izza M. Glimepramide (GLIM) vs metformin (MET) as monotherapy in pediatric subjects with T2DM: a single blind comparison study. Pediatric Diabetes 2005; 6(suppl 3):24-5 (abstract SP-18).

89. Schwartz S, Raskin P, Fonseca V, Graveline JF. Effect of troglitazone a in insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:861-6.

90. Dabiri G, Jones K, Krebs J, et al. Benefits of rosiglitazone in children with T2DM. American Diabetes Association 2005; abstract 1904-P.

91. Chiasson J, Josse R, Hunt J, et al. The efficacy of acarbose in the treatment of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A multicenter controlled clinical trial. Ann Int Med 1994; 121: 928-35.

92. UKPDS Group. Intensive blood glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352:837-53.

93. Gungor N, Bacha F, Saad R, et al. Youth type 2 diabetes: insulin resistance, beta-cell failure, or both? Diabetes Care 2005; 28:638-44.

94. Gungor N, Arslanian S. Progressive beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus of youth. J Pediatr 2004; 144:656-9.

95. Leon DD, Crutchlow MF, Ham JY, Stoffers DA. Role of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2006; 38:845-59.

96. Aston-Mourney K, Proietto J, Andrikopoulos S. Investigational agents that protect pancreatic islet beta-cells from failure. Expert Opin Invest Drugs 2005; 14:1241-50.

97. Herman GA, Bergman A, Stevens C, et al. Effect of single oral doses of sitagliptin, a, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on incretin and plasma glucose levels following an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; doi:10.1210/jc.2006-1009.

98. UKPDS Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. Br Med J 1998; 317:703-13.

99. Yokoyama H, Okudaira M, Otani T, et al. High incidence of diabetic nephropathy in early-onset Japanese NIDDM patients. Risk analysis. Diabetes Care 1998; 21:1080-5.

100. Fagot-Campagna A, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ. Type 2 diabetes in Pima Indian Children: Cardiovascular risk factors at diagnosis and 10 years later. Diabetes 1998; 47 (Suppl 1):A155.

101. Haffner SM, Alexander CM, Cook TJ, et al., for the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Reduced coronary events in Simvastatin treated patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose levels. Arch Int Med 1999; 59:2661-7.

102. Law RE, GoeTze S, Xi X-P, et al. Expression and function of PPARy in rat and human vascular smooth muscle cells. Circulation 2000; 101:1311-8.

My Life My Diet

My Life My Diet

I lost over 60 pounds and 4+ inches off my waist without pills, strenuous exercise, or any of the things that the diet experts tell you to do...and I did it in less than 4 months! If you have the desire, and can read through my e-book , then this is for you! I could have easily made it a lot more difficult, with stacks of information that people will never read, but why?

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment