Noninvasive Cgm Uses Reverse Ionophoresis To Sample Tissue Fluid

A noninvasive CGM system called the Glucowatch Biographer utilizes an electric current (reverse ionophoresis) to extract glucose-containing ISF from the skin (Animas Corporation, West Chester, PA, USA, Tissue fluid collected within a gel pad under the Glucowatch is analyzed for glucose using an enzyme-based, electrochemical technique. The system displays the absolute glucose concentration and the rate/direction of change, every 10-15 minutes for patient interpretation. Programmable alarms are designed to warn the patient of impending hypo and hyperglycemia. The technology is limited by inadequate accuracy, long extraction time, long warm-up period (2 h), short gel pad lifetime (12 h), irritation of the skin and cost (37).

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