Ophthalmic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, and cranial nerve palsies, but diabetic retinopathy is by far the most frequent and potentially blinding complication. Nearly three decades ago it was estimated that diabetics are 20 times more likely to be blind than the general population (1). Despite the great strides that have since been made in our understanding and management of diabetes, ocular complications continue to have a major impact on the well-being of patients with this disease. Results from several recent studies have made clear that, with tight metabolic control, vigilant screening and timely well-executed intervention, vision loss due to diabetes can be drastically reduced (2). This chapter describes the ophthalmic complications associated with type 2 diabetes, with particular attention given to their clinical characteristics and management.

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