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Pramlintide in Type 2 Patients Using Basal Insulin (Without Mealtime Insulin)

The potential benefits of pramlintide in patients with type 2 diabetes using basal insulin alone (without mealtime insulin) were assessed via two post-hoc analyses. Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 18) from a placebo-controlled, 52-week study, using pramlintide (120 ^g b.i.d.) as an adjunct to basal insulin (Lente, Ultralente, or NPH) experienced greater reductions in A1c (-1.16% vs. -0.48% ) and greater weight loss (-2.3 kg vs. —0.9 kg) compared to placebo-treated patients (38). In patients (n = 10) treated with insulin glargine (± oral antidiabetic agents) and enrolled in an open-label study, similar changes were observed (39). At 52 weeks, A1c was reduced by 1.0%, despite an 18% reduction in insulin glargine dose, and patients had an average weight loss of —3 kg. Importantly, no pramlintide-treated patient in either analysis experienced an episode of severe hypoglycemia.

Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress, the imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant consumption, is increasingly regarded as a significant factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications (40,41). Moreover, it is well documented that hyperglycemia generates oxidative stress (42,43).

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Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

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