Clinical Features

Systemic complications of diabetes typically manifest clinically after permanent tissue damage has already occurred. Unlike the changes occurring in other organs, the microvascular alterations responsible for preventable vision loss can be observed directly through a dilated pupil (Fig. 1). Clinicians caring for diabetics should be skilled at recognizing the signs and symptoms of diabetic retinopathy, not only because it minimizes visual sequelae, but also because the status of the retina reflects microvascular complications occurring elsewhere in the body.

Ophthalmologists classify diabetic retinopathy as non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The non-proliferative changes are also commonly referred to as background diabetic retinopathy. The ocular changes seen in eyes with NPDR all occur at the level of the retina, in contrast to PDR, which is characterized by the growth of blood vessels and fibrous tissue beyond the surface of the retina. The clinical

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Emergency Panic Remedies

Emergency Panic Remedies

Eliminate Your Panic And Anxiety Attacks Instantly With These Proven Techniques! There’s
 very
 little
 in
 this 
world
 that 
is
 as 
frightening
 and
 uncomfortable
 as 
a panic
 attack. 

Once
 they
 start,
 panic
 attacks
 can
 send
 you
 spiraling
 out
 of control.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment