The calpain-10 gene encodes for a cysteine protease reported to be responsible for the association of a region in chromosome 2 with diabetes (80,81). A recent meta-analysis indicates that several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are responsible for the association, each with only a modest effect with relative risks between 1.10 and 1.5 (82). Genetic variation in calpain-10 may affect sensitivity (83) or insulin secretion (84). It has also been shown to inhibit a protease involved in mitochondrial function, which might relate to mitochondrial dysfunction as is often observed in type 2 diabetes (85).

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