101 Toxic Food Ingredients
The food labels on all packaged foods describe the serving size and how many grams of carbohydrates there are in each serving. One word of caution the food labels break down the carbohydrates into sugars and fibers. Since humans cannot digest fiber very well, the grams of fiber should be excluded from the carbohydrate estimation, especially if the fiber content is particularly high. If you are going to eat a food with 5 grams of dietary fiber or more, you should subtract the dietary fiber content from the total carbohydrate. For example, for a food in which the carbohydrate content is 31 grams per serving, and there are 6 grams of dietary fiber in that serving, calculate the insulin for 31 - 6 25 grams carbohydrate.
This section explores a case of getting something for almost nothing. If you like a lot of distinctive flavors in your food, try using various condiments, herbs, and spices to replace the flavors of fat and salt. Experimenting with these flavors can bring entirely new tastes to old favorite recipes. Surely, the new millennium is all about breaking free from old habits of eating, which may not be so good for you, and replacing them with new tastes. Examples of condiments that add great taste and few calories are salsa, hot sauce, mustard, and horseradish. Herbs that add flavor include rosemary, thyme, and basil. They are best added toward the end of cooking to preserve their flavor if fresh, or at the beginning of cooking to bring out their flavor if dried.
Although people with diabetes are allowed to have some sugar in their diet, sugar is more appropriate for a diabetic who is at normal weight than an obese diabetic. Preventing obesity may be a matter of avoiding as little as 50 extra calories a day. If this can be accomplished by using artificial sweeteners, which provide sweetening power but no calories, so much the better. This group of non-nutritive or artificial sweeteners (with the exception of Stevia, which comes from a plant) is much sweeter than table sugar and contains no calories at all. Much less of these sweeteners will provide the same level of sweetness as a larger amount of sugar. However, the taste of some of them may seem a little off compared to sugar or honey. They include the following
To do the same thing when you go to a restaurant and have no idea of the contents of the food. At the grocery store, the food label gives you the breakdown that you need. That is why it is so important to check the food labels, as explained in Chapter 5, to find out how much carbohydrate, protein, and fat the food actually contains. The portions on all food labels are based on a 2,000-kilocalorie diet. Not one of the diets in this chapter allows you to eat that many calories. Such a portion may be much too large for a person on a 1,200-kilocalorie diet.
Try quickcooking methods such as stirfrying meat that you have marinated using tiny amounts of olive or canola oil or
How do you know how much fat is in the food you eat Sometimes it can be difficult, especially when you are eating out. For foods you buy and prepare yourself, check the food labels. The Nutrition Facts label tells you how much fat, saturated fat, and calories from fat are in one serving. If you are cooking a meal or dish with lots of ingredients, try to add up the fat and calories from each ingredient and divide by the number of servings. If you are eating out, many restaurants, particularly chain and fast food restaurants, now provide nutritional information on request. If you are uncertain about any foods, ask your dietitian for an estimate. At the end of the day, add up all the calories from fat from the labels on the foods you've eaten and any other hidden fats in foods without labels. This Trans fats are produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat through a process called hydrogenation. Trans fats act like saturated fats and can raise your cholesterol level. Beginning in...
Food that's fried in a fast-food restaurant may be fried in trans fats. These fats, also called hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oils, not only increase hardening of the arteries like saturated fats and cholesterol do, but they also reduce the levels of good cholesterol. Since 2006, food labels have been required to include the amount of trans fats, and the better fast-food places are trying to eliminate them from their cooking processes. Trans fats are still present in large amounts, however, especially in foods like French fries, batter-dipped onion rings, fried mozzarella sticks, and buffalo wings. The best way to avoid trans fats is to order food that's low in all fats.
The efficacy of soya and soya derivatives in lowering total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol was recently supported by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approving a health claim about the role of soya protein in reducing the risk of CHD. In 1999 the FDA finalised a rule that authorises the use on food labels and in food packages under FDA jurisdiction of the health claims concerning the association between soya protein and reduced risk of CHD '25g of soya protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease' (37). Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations can be lowered by about 13 , plasma TG by 10 and HDL-cholesterol goes up by about 2 (38), and these beneficial effects are also seen in people with Type 2 diabetes (39). It is unclear if the benefits come from the main phyto-oestrogens found in soya, diadzein and genistein or from the soy protein itself. Epidemiological evidence suggests high intakes of...
Recently, an intestinal glucose-sensing has been elucidated which regulates intestinal glucose absorption 45 . Dietary sugars are transported from the intestinal lumen into absorptive enterocytes by the sodium-dependent glucose transporter isoform 1 (SGLT1). Regulation of this protein is important for the provision of glucose to the body and avoidance of intestinal malabsorption. Expression of SGLT1 is regulated by luminal monosaccharides via a luminal glucose sensor, which consists of the sweet taste receptor T1R3 and the taste G protein gustducin, expressed in enteroendocrine cells. Dietary sugar and artificial sweeteners increased SGLT1 mRNA and protein expression, and glucose absorptive capacity in wild-type mice, but not in knockout mice lacking Tir3 or a-gustducin. Therefore it was suggested that intestine-expressed taste-signaling elements which are involved in regulating SGLT1 expression might provide novel therapeutic targets for modulating the gut's capacity to absorb...
Long-term use of artificial sweeteners is particularly useful for weight loss -reducing sugar intake saves fewer calories than reducing dietary fat by the same amount (74). Some large-scale dietary surveys have shown that people who consume higher amounts of sugar and less fat tend to have lower body weights (75-77). Refined sucrose consumption correlates inversely with fat intake in both non-diabetic and diabetic populations. In addition, research shows that a moderate-high intake of sugar is not associated with a reduced intake of vitamins and minerals (78). One of the reasons for this is that sucrose increases the palatability and intake of nutritious foods such as cereals and dairy products. Sucrose also satisfies an instinctual desire for sweetness and has many functional roles in foods that extend beyond its sweetening power, including preservative, textural and flavour-modifying qualities.
Carbohydrate counting is a technique commonly used to quantify the total amount of carbohydrate consumed at a meal or snack (36). Two basic techniques can be employed One counts grams of carbohydrate using food labels and written sources to provide information on the grams of carbohydrate per serving in a food and the second uses a modified exchange system where carbohydrate-containing foods are classified in 15-g servings. One carb is equivalent to 15 g of carbohydrate. An individual's usual carbohydrate intake at meals and snacks can be assessed and used to establish carbohydrate goals for each meal and snack (see Table 2). The availability of rapid-acting insulin provides a means to establish an insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio for each meal.
Fish oils are listed as functional food ingredients because of their remarkable effect on preventing sudden cardiac death.13 The recommended consumption of fish in Western countries is one or two portions per week. The average intake varies highly between countries, with a six- to sevenfold variation in total fish consumption in countries in Europe,14 but is lower than the recommendation. Instead of increasing the amount of fish in the diet, functional foods enriched with the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be used. Several foods can be fortified with fish oil, for example margarines, dairy products, sausages, luncheon meat and french onion dip.15
Condiments are typically used to flavor or complement other foods. But some condiments are so delicious and craveable that you may want to eat them all by themselves. Condiment may be a bit of an understatement for the tasty recipes in this section. They can both be terrific spreads for sandwiches or lettuce wraps. Use them as sauces to top grilled chicken or firm fish.
Moving up the chain, food manufacturers produce prepackaged foods that may not be good choices because they are popular and can be sold for large profits. These prepackaged foods often are overloaded with sodium, carbohydrates, food additives, saturated fats, trans fats, sugar, and other things that make them poor choices for a healthy diet. Things like hydrogenated vegetable oils (trans fats) are used to promote longer shelf life even though it has
Energy expenditure includes BMR, the thermogenic effect of food (TEF) and physical activity. BMR is the main component of energy expenditure in the average person and is the energy expenditure for maintenance processes. BMR is measured under very strict laboratory conditions that include a 12-h fast and rest, making early morning a good time to make such measurements. Any measure to estimate BMR not made under such strict conditions is referred to as resting metabolic rate (RMR). Energy expenditure associated with physical activity is quantified and discussed in the literature in various forms using energy units such as the kilocalorie or the Joule (SI unit) and other dimensionless quantities which are multiples of BMR (the PAL or the MET). Although the Joule is the SI unit of energy, the kilocalorie is still in common use partly because of the physics related to its definition and mostly because of its use in everyday life in terms of dieting (i.e. calorie counting). There are 4186 J...
Carbohydrate count out of whack) Once you know your daily plan for calories, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and carbohydrate, as well as fiber and sodium, you will find information about all of these nutrients on every food label. Reading food labels may seem daunting at first, but your dietitian can help you understand what to be on the lookout for. Health Claims. Food manufacturers can only make health claims on food labels that are supported by scientific research. These claims suggest a relationship between potentially harmful or helpful items or ingredients and a particular disease or condition. Some valid claims include links between the following Natural has no specific meaning except for meat and poultry products. Here it means that no chemical preservatives, hormones, or similar substances have been added. On other food labels, the word natural is not restricted to any particular meaning by government regulation. Fresh can only be used to describe raw food that has not been...
Nutrients required on food labels reflect current public health concerns and coincide with current public health recommendations. Nutrition labels now list a Daily Reference Value (DRV) for specific nutrients, including fiber. The DRV for fiber is 25 grams per day based on a 2,000 calorie diet, or 30 grams per day based on a 2,500 calorie diet. The fiber content of a food is listed in grams and as a percentage of the daily value. We have all seen nutrition labels on our food. Imagine a food nutrition label. It tells you the product provides 3 g of fiber in a half cup serving. The percent Daily Value for one serving is 12 percent, or 12 percent of DRV of 25 grams based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Unfortunately, only packaged foods require the labels. For the data on the healthier whole and unprocessed foods we have to go to data bases such as that provided in the NutriBase software that came with this book.
After you are well again, you may wish to indulge in some philosophy. How did an obscure virus-a snail virus -become a human virus This is not so bizarre. After all, rabies virus comes to us from animals, and many encephalitis viruses come from mosquitoes. How did HIV spread so rapidly How did a pollutant as dangerous as benzene get to be in our very food Are other parasites getting set to spring on us What must be done to protect ourselves and loved ones from future disasters Would getting away from fossil fuel be a big answer Would getting away from preoccupation with chemistry be a big answer Would more disclosure of industrial practices be an answer Should the government agencies responsible for food and product safety be depoliticized Should public inspection of food manufacturing be a right Should disclosure of foreign origins of food ingredients be mandatory Would communicating with other cancer and AIDS survivors be useful The computer age would make communication possible....
Semi-skimmed milk and artificial sweeteners such as aspartame can help the patient towards skimmed milk and no sweetener (or even black tea or coffee). Aerated 'diet' drinks containing artificial sweeteners can be drunk in moderation. Care is needed in reading the labels of some products marked 'sugar-free' which may contain other refined carbohydrates, for example glucose. Savoury drinks used to be encouraged but most of these are very salty.
Case-control studies suggest that dietary A-nitroso compounds (Dahlquist et al. 1990) and nitrite (Dahlquist et al. 1990 Virtanen et al. 1994b) increase the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. Also mother's intake of nitrite at the time of pregnancy was positively related to the risk of type 1 diabetes in children independently of child's nitrite intake (Virtanen et al. 1994b). Nitrate is a naturally occurring compound in vegetables. Nitrate and nitrite are both used as food additives in the processing of meat products. In food and the human gastrointestinal tract nitrate is reduced to nitrite by bacteria, and A-nitroso compounds are formed from nitrite in the chemical or bacterial nitrosation reaction with amino compounds (Slorach 1981). Vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol inhibit and thiocyanate ions accelerate the formation of A-nitroso compounds (Leaf et al. 1989).
Nutrition For Kids
Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Get The Right Nutrition For Your Kids. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Essential Nutrients For Children All Parents Should Know. Children today are more likely to consume foods that are delicious rather than nutritious, and most foods that come under the delicious category are usually either highly sweetened or salted, either way the delicious choice is not good for the child at all.