Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Crush Detox

This program was designed by Jane who had the same problems with sugar. Throughout her life, she was addicted to sugar and she thought she needs swift intervention before that habit develops into something else. She had an experience that helped her beat sugar addiction with the rest of the world. Her program helps you cut all the roots of majority of the health problems you usually gets. It attacks the weight loss problem at its source which is the biological craving for sugar. This product was specifically created to help people with sugar cravings beat this addiction and lead a healthy life. This program contains a couple of guides available in PDF, MP3 and video formats. The author used simple language in all the formats to ensure that everybody will be able to handle sugar addiction. If you are one of them and you want to get the full support required to quit sugar and lead a heathy life, then Sugar Crush Detox is for you. More here...

Sugar Crush Detox Summary


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My Sugar Crush Detox Review

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Recently several visitors of websites have asked me about this manual, which is being promoted quite widely across the Internet. So I ordered a copy myself to figure out what all the excitement was about.

All the modules inside this ebook are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Using sugar substitutes

Old habits take a long time to die, and there are still plenty of people, even doctors, who think that people with diabetes must avoid sugar at all costs. Most physicians no longer believe this and permit some sugar in the diet of patients with T1DM, but the wish to avoid sugar has created an industry of products with fewer or no calories yet great sweetening power. Sugar-free food can still have plenty of fat and protein calories. Because total calories are what counts in the diet, there's no great advantage to eating sugar-free products when the result may be that your child's getting as many or more total calories.

Choosing sugar substitutes

Some of the recipes in this book call for 4 cup or more of sugar. These are perfect opportunities to use a sugar substitute and significantly lower the calories from sugar. Several sugars besides sucrose (table sugar) are present in food. These sugars have different properties than glucose, are taken up differently from the intestine, and raise the blood level at a slower rate or not at all if they're not ultimately converted into glucose. They sometimes cause diarrhea. The following sweeteners contain kilocalories but act differently in the body than sucrose Sucralose This sweetener, which is made from sugar, is 600 times sweeter than its parent, sucrose. The brand name is Splenda. It remains stable when heated and has become a favorite sweetener in the food industry. Because foods don't bake the same when made with Splenda, a combination of Splenda and sugar called Pure Magic is sold to reduce calories while providing the baking characteristics of sugar. Appendix C shows the amount...

Evidence For Sucrose Restriction In Diabetic Diets

Many randomised, controlled trials have shown that the isocaloric substitution of moderate amounts of refined sucrose for starch in diabetic diets has no adverse effects on blood glucose or lipid levels in people with diabetes (69-71). In fact, several studies show improved glycaemic control, especially in children with Type 1 diabetes (72). This makes sense when we consider that most foods containing sugar have a GI less than 60, while that of most modern starchy foods is over 70 (37,73). Many diabetes associations now officially recognise that sucrose restriction is not necessary in diabetic diets, although some put an upper limit of 30 g per day (the average intake in the non-diabetic population is about 60 g per day). Unfortunately, the dietary dogma of sucrose avoidance in diabetic diets is so well entrenched in the mind of the public and most health professionals that little change has occurred in practice. Intense sweeteners and low-joule soft drinks are almost universally...

Having a sweet tooth runs in my family My dad got diabetes from eating too much sugar

Eating too much sugar doesn't cause diabetes. But eating too much sugar isn't healthy for anyone. It can cause tooth decay and, with the increase in calories, lead to excess pounds. Sweets contain lots of carbohydrates and sometimes fat, which may fill you up without giving you much nutritional benefit. Having a candy bar before lunch makes it easier to pass up the vegetable soup.

Conversions of Weights Measures and Sugar Substitutes

0o you know how many tablespoons are in a cup How many grams are in a pound And how do you choose between all those sugar substitutes on the market What if you need to convert an oven temperature from Celsius to Fahrenheit This appendix offers some information to help you answer those questions.

Sugar Substitutes

The new approach to nutrition for people with diabetes doesn't emphasize the elimination of sugar from your diet entirely as long as you count the kilo-calories that you consume. When a recipe calls for only a few teaspoons of sugar, you may want to use table sugar (also known as sucrose). When the recipe calls for cup of sugar or more, then substitution with a noncaloric sweetener of your choice will definitely save you kilocalories. There are also sweeteners besides glucose that do contain kilocalories but offer other advantages, such as not raising the blood glucose as fast. (We discuss your sweet options in more detail in Chapter 2.)

Nutrients That Can Help

Persuasive research by Harvard Medical School scientists has shown that diets rich in refined carbohydrates and carbohydrate-dense vegetables and grains increase CRP levels and inflammation. In the study, potatoes, breakfast cereals, white bread, muffins, and white rice were most strongly associated with elevated CRP levels. As with diabetes, it is essential that a person exercise the responsibility to choose healthier foods, such as those recommended in the Anti-Inflammation Syndrome Diet Plan. Such a diet should emphasize nutrient-dense lean meats (such as chicken and turkey), fish, and vegetables, while deem-phasizing calorie-dense sugary foods and grain-based carbohydrates. The simple rule is to get as much diverse nutrition as possible in every bite of food. That is more easily accomplished with fish and vegetables than with pasta or pizza.

Management Strategies

Obese patients should aim to achieve some weight reduction by adopting a healthy lifestyle with a combination of correct diet and regular exercise. Weight reduction should be gradual and need not reach ideal body weight to improve glycaemic control. Patients should be encouraged to take a balanced, nutritionally correct diet and reduce their intake of simple sugars and fat. Unsaturated fat should be substituted by monounsaturated or poly-unsaturated types. Although the optimal dietary composition is unknown, a diet composed of 15-20 of total energy intake as protein, 25-30 as fat, 50-60 as complex carbohydrate and less than 10 as simple sugars is a generally accepted recommendation (European Diabetes Policy Group 1999 IDF Asian-Pacific Type 2 Diabetes Policy Group 1999 National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia 1992).

Holiday Prune And Raisin Roll

1 tbsp. quick rising yeast 3 1 2 to 4 c. flour 1 4 c. white Sugar Twin Combine flour, yeast, salt, white Sugar Twin together in a bowl. In another bowl cream margarine, water, lemon extract, and Egg Beaters. Combine contents of both bowls and mix until dough is soft. Place dough in another bowl (spray with Pam). Cover and let rise 1520 minutes. Punch down and let dough rise for an additional 15-20 minutes. While dough is rising 1 2 c. raisins 1 2 tsp. pure lemon extract Brown Sugar Twin to taste 1 4 c. evaporated skim milk Cook raisins and prunes in a little water until tender. Place in blender and mix or mash with potato masher. Add brown Sugar Twin and lemon extract. To prepare roll for cooking Roll out dough, forming a rectangle. Sprinkle with filling and roll up, sealing edges with a little water.

Apricot Upside Down Cake

1 2 tsp. brown sugar replacement Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Combine apricots, lemon juice, brown sugar, and cinnamon. Spread on bottom of non-stick small baking dish. Combine crumbs, baking powder, and salt. Beat egg yolks. Gradually beat in sugar until yolks are thick and lemon colored. Beat in water, bread crumb mixture and extract. Beat egg whites with a pinch of salt until stiff, not dry. Fold into egg mixture. Spoon over apricots. Bake for 25 minutes or until cooked throughout. 2 servings.

Applesauce Bran Muffins

Liquid sugar substitute equal to 1 c. sugar (optional) 2 tbsp. brown sugar 2 tbsp. water Mix together bran, egg, oil, applesauce, sugar substitute, brown sugar, and water, let set at room temperature for 30-45 minutes. Stir together flour, soda, dry buttermilk, salt and cinnamon. Add to bran mixture and mix at medium speed only until flour is moistened. Spray muffin tins with Pam, or line them with paper liners. Fill about 1 2 full and bake at 400 degrees for 20 minutes or until they spring back when touched in center. Serve hot. Makes 12 muffins.

Creamy Chocolate Fudge

1 4 c. brown sugar replacement Place margarine in a small pan over hot water to melt. Sift brown sugar and coffee very slowly into margarine. Stir constantly. Soften gelatin in soda. Add nonfat dry milk. Add a few drops more of soda if needed. The mixture needs to be paste like. Combine gelatin mixture with margarine mixture. Stir constantly over hot water until thoroughly blended. Combine cheese, extracts, sweetener, and food coloring. Mix well. Fold gelatin-margarine mixture into Ricotta mixture. Pour into 8 x 8 x 2 inch pan. Refrigerate 2 hours. Freeze for firmer fudge. 20 squares.

Almond Biscuit Ring

1 4 c. granulated brown sugar, replacement 2 tbsp. diabetic maple syrup 2 tsp. reduced calorie margarine 2 tsp. water In a 1 1 2 quart microwave safe casserole, combine the brown sugar replacement, maple syrup, margarine and water. Cover with a paper towel and microwave on high for one minute. Allow to sit, covered for one minute, then stir to mix in the melted margarine. Stir in the almonds. Cut each of the biscuits into four pieces.

Pineapple Pork Chops

1 4 tbsp. brown sugar substitute Trim all fat from meat. Brown meat on both sides in Pam-sprayed skillet. Remove chops. Clean pan of all fat. In skillet, mix pineapple juice and sugar substitute. Add cinnamon and rosemary. Put chops in pan. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Add celery and cover. Simmer about 30 minutes. Add green pepper strips. Place pineapple rings on each chop. Cover and cook about 10 minutes longer. Arrange chops on serving platter. Place pineapple and pepper strips on top. Spoon juice over. Garnish with parsley.

Applesauce Bran Squares

2 tbsp. brown sugar 1 2 tsp. salt Place dry ingredients in mixer bowl and mix at low speed for 1 minute. Add oleo, egg whites, vanilla, sugar substitute, nuts, and applesauce to flour mixture and mix at medium speed for 1 minute or until blended. Spread evenly in a 9 x 13 cake pan which has been greased with oleo or sprayed with PAM spray. Bake at 375 degrees for 25 to 30 minutes or until browned and it starts to pull away from the sides of pan. Cut into 3 x 5 squares and serve warm or room temperature. One square per serving. Calories 135, cholesterol 14 milligrams, fat 8 grams, NA 24 milligrams, 1 bread and 1 1 2 fat.

Caloriecontaining sweeteners

Fructose is fruit sugar found in fruits and berries. Its great advantage it that it's absorbed much more slowly than glucose although it has about the same sweetening power as table sugar, which is sucrose. Xylitol is a sugar alcohol found in strawberries and raspberries. Xylitol has the sweetening power of sucrose. It's taken up slowly from the intestine, so it causes little change in blood glucose. Xylitol doesn't cause cavities of the teeth as often as the other sweeteners containing calories, so it's commonly used in chewing gum, hard candy, and some drugs.

Fruit And Spice Cookies

3 eggs (or 1 2 carton of Eggbeaters) 2 1 2 cups flour 1 2 pound oleo 1 4 cup sugar 1 4 cup sugar substitute + 2 heaping tsp. more sugar substitute 1 4 tsp. allspice 1 2 tsp. salt Mix together dates, raisins. Then add eggs. Let soak. Mix like pie crust flour, oleo, sugar, sugar substitute. Use generous measures for spices

Deep Dish Apple

Sugar substitute to equal 1 3 c. sugar Combine sugar substitute, cornstarch, lemon rind, lemon juice, nutmeg, cinnamon, and apple slices. Place in 9 inch deep dish pie plate on baking dish set aside. Combine flour and salt cut in margarine until mixture resembles cornmeal. Blend in water with fork until all dry ingredients are moistened. Shape dough into a ball. Roll out dough on floured surface, and place on top of apple filling. Bake at 425 degrees for 35 minutes or until brown. Cut in 8 equal slices and serve. Yields 8 servings. Amount 1 8 of pie. Exchange 1 1 2 bread, 1 2 fat. 1 1 2 c. all purpose flour 1 1 2 c. reg. oatmeal, uncooked Sugar substitute to equal 1 2 c. sugar 1 2 tsp. baking soda 1 4 tsp. salt

Lowcalorie Brownies

1 2 c. semi-sweet chocolate pieces, melted 1 2 c. chopped nuts 1 tbsp. sifted powdered sugar Combine crumbs, cinnamon and salt. Stir in milk and vanilla, mixing well. Add chocolate and nuts blend thoroughly. Turn into lightly greased 9 inch pan. Bake in 350 degree preheated oven for 15 to 20 minutes, or just until done. Turn out on rack to cool. Cut into 40 pieces sprinkle powdered sugar over top. 44 calories per piece.

Local Rhubarb Torte

1 2 c. butter or oleo 5 tbsp. powdered sugar 1 8 tsp. salt Crust Mix 1 cup flour, butter, powdered sugar, and salt together. Pat into a 12 x 7 x 1 2 inch cake pan. Bake 10 minutes at 375 degrees. Remove from oven and cool slightly. Filling Mix eggs, Sugar Twin, 1 4 cup flour, baking powder, and rhubarb together. Cover the crust with this mixture. Bake 35 to 40 minutes at 375 degrees.

Manson Je Rimm Eb Stampfer Mj Colditz Ga Willett Wc Krolewski As Rosner B Hennekens Ch Speizer Fe. A Prospective Study

Peterson DB, Lambert, J, Gerring S, Darling P, Carter RD, Jelfs R, Mann JI. Sucrose in the diet of diabetic patients just another carbohydrate Diabetologia (1986) 29 216-220. 14. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet (2001) 357 505-508.

Clinical Indications For Betacell Replacement

Given the very limited availability of donated pancreas, which has been estimated to be roughly 4000 to 6000 a year in the United States of America, relatively few patients with diabetes should be considered for beta-cell replacement. There are three general clinical situations that justify this approach. The first is recurrent hypoglycemia with poor symptom recognition despite optimal medical care. This is a complex area to consider. Recurrent hypoglycemia in diabetic patients is a direct consequence of administration of exogenous insulin. In circumstances where too much insulin has been given, patients inevitably become hypoglycemic. When patients become recurrently hypoglycemic, they develop a decrease in the perception of symptoms related to hypoglycemia. Normally, hypoglycemia causes warmth, hunger, sweating, and rapid heart rate. When hypoglycemia becomes very severe, additional symptoms such as visual loss, lethargy, coma, and even death can occur. With recurrent hypoglycemia,...

Autonomic Regulation Of Cardiovascular Function

Fatty rats, an animal model of spontaneous noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (15). Male rats that were 31-week-old were maintained for 8 weeks with or without 30 sucrose solution as drinking water. Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats served as controls. Plasma and cardiac tissue cathecolamine levels were also determined. Plasma glucose levels of diabetic rats with and without sucrose loading (554 106 and 141 1.5 mg dL, respectively) were significantly higher than those of control rats (116 3.7 mg dL). Norepinephrine concentrations in heart and plasma tended to be lower in diabetic rats. Cardiac uptake of 123I-MIBG, calculated as dose g of tissue, was significantly lower in diabetic rats than in control rats, indicative of reduced adrenergic innervation.

Oral diabetes medications or oral hyperglycemic medications

Sugar A carbohydrate that provides calories (4 calories per gram) and is converted to glucose. There are a variety of sugars, such as white, brown, confectioner's, and raw. Glucose is one type of sugar. Fructose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, dextrose, glucose, honey, corn syrup, molasses, and sorghum are also sugars. Sugar substitutes Sweeteners used in place of sugar. Note that some sugar substitutes have calories and will affect blood glucose levels, such as fructose (a sugar, but often used in sugar-free products) and sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol and mannitol. Others have very few calories and will not affect blood glucose levels, such as saccharin, acesulfame-K, aspar-tame (NutraSweet), and sucralose (Splenda).

Carbohydrate And Dietary Fibre

The suggestion that refined carbohydrates, and sugars in particular, might be involved in the aetiology of Type 2 diabetes dates back to the writings of early Indian physicians. However, in the 1960s, Yudkin resurrected the suggestion that high intakes of sucrose may be particularly important in the aetiology of Type 2 diabetes when he drew attention to the positive correlation between intakes of sucrose and diabetes prevalence in 22 countries (11). But it has subsequently become clear that the correlations were heavily dependent upon which countries were selected for inclusion and that such geographic correlations do no more than provide clues for further research, they certainly do not imply causality. Over 40 studies have examined the role of sugars in the aetiology of Type 2 diabetes, with about half suggesting a positive association and a comparable number suggesting no association. Some have even suggested an inverse association between diabetes incidence and sucrose intake...

Molecular Cell Biology Of Endothelial Dysfunction In Diabetes

High Glucose Insulin Pathway

Terminus of free amino acids of proteins and initially leads to a Schiff base, which then undergoes rearrangement to early glycation Amadori-adducts such as fructosamine. Amadori-adducts are relatively stable and only a small fraction undergoes rearrangements to irreversible AGEs. AGEs are a mixture of different moieties. When oxidation is involved in their formation, so-called glycoxidation products such as pentosidine and NE-(carboxymethyl)lysine result. Initially, AGEs were thought to form only on long-lived extracellular molecules, because of the slow rate of reaction of glucose with proteins. However, intracellular and short-lived molecules have now also been shown to be targets for AGE formation through reactions with other sugars such as glucose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, which form AGEs at a much faster rate than glucose. In addition, the highly reactive dicarbonyl compounds methylglyoxal, glyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone, which are formed from the degradation of...

Jeffrey S Elmendorf Introduction

To evaluate insulin action as it pertains to GLUT-4 translocation. This is because these cells can be fractionated into relatively pure membrane fractions. Herein we will focus on the use of the subcellular fractionation technique to analyze GLUT-4 cellular distribution in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte model system. Adipocytes at 10-12 d after withdrawal from differentiation media are routinely used for fractionation, and at this time of adipocyte development, the mRNA and protein levels of GLUT-4 (14) together with the glucose-transport response to insulin (15) have reached a steady state. Subcellular fractionation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes uses a procedure similar to that developed for the fractionation of isolated adipocytes (16,17). Four fractions obtained by differential centrifuga-tion include the plasma membrane (PM), low-density microsomes (LDMs), high-density microsomes (HDMs), and cytosol (CYT). The intracellular pool of GLUT-4 is localized in the LDM. Because of its migration in sucrose...

Dietary Modifications

Chronic consumption of high glycemic index foods, such as white bread and refined sugars, may also lead to chronically high oxidative stress and release of stress hormones (such as cortisol), which initiates the inflammatory signaling pathways. The consumption of high glycemic index foods results in higher and more rapid increases in blood glucose levels than the consumption of low glycemic index foods. Rapid increases in blood glucose are potent signals to the p-cells of the pancreas to increase insulin secretion. Over the next few hours after eating high glycemic foods, the high insulin levels induced by consumption of high glycemic index foods may lead to hypoglycemia. On the other hand, the consumption of low glycemic index foods results in lower but more sustained increases in blood glucose and lower insulin demands on pancreatic p-cells. The release of stress hormones, such as epinephrine and cortisol, are produced with dramatic increases and decreases in blood sugar levels....

Carbohydrate And Insulin Sensitivity

Daly et al. (28) have recently reviewed the evidence and clinical implications of dietary carbohydrates and insulin sensitivity. This is a controversial area. Extensive studies in animals show a detrimental effect of diets very high in fructose or sucrose, particularly in association with induction of hypertrigly-ceridaemia. The more limited results in human studies show conflicting results, partly because of heterogeneity of design. Certain groups of subjects such as the elderly, sedentary subjects, those with established coronary artery disease, males and hyperinsulinaemic subjects may be more sensitive to very high intakes of sucrose and fructose than others.

Maraschino Cherry Gumdrop Cookies

1 2 c. margarine 1 4 c. brown sugar 1 egg yolk 1 c. flour Beat egg whites until stiff. Add skim milk powder. Mix well. Add extracts and sugar substitute. Drop cookies by spoonfuls onto cookie sheet. Bake at 275 degrees for 45 minutes. Remove from cookie sheet and dust with cinnamon. Yields 2 to 2 1 2 dozen. One cookie equals 32 calories.

Depression Treatment Considerations For Diabetic Patients

These agents act by increasing serotonergic functioning, which in turn increases insulin sensitivity and reduces plasma glucose. Most studies have investigated fluoxetine (doses up to 60mg day) and sertraline. Patients' depressive symptoms responded, and they experienced weight loss, decreased fasting plasma glucose, and lowered HgbA1c levels. Cat-echolamines, on the other hand, are associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Depressed diabetic patients who were administered nor-triptyline, a norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitor, had poorer glycemic control. Other tricyclic antidepressants can increase food cravings, increase weight, and raise serum glucose levels. Because both catecholamines and serotonin have been implicated in diabetic neuropathy, dual-action antidepressants may be the preferred agents, particularly in non-depressed subjects.

Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin Resistance Linked to Colorectal Cancer

In various animal models, it could be shown that insulin and insulin-like growth factor axes and insulin resistance are major determinants of proliferation and apop-tosis and thus may influence carcinogenesis. Clinical conditions associated with hyperinsulinemia and increased IGF-1 levels are related to an increased risk of colon cancer. Global nutrition studies 39 indicate that dietary patterns that stimulate insulin secretion and resistance, including a high consumption of sucrose, various sources of starch, a high glycemic index and high saturated fatty acid intake, are associated with a higher risk of colon cancer. Efforts to counter these patterns are likely to have the most potential to reduce colon cancer incidence and tumor recurrence.

Thirst polydipsia and polyuria

The thirst of untreated diabetes is not easily slaked. Unfortunately many people choose sucrose or glucose-rich aerated drinks like lemonade or cola which temporarily relieve the thirst but exacerbate the underlying problem. At night they will have a glass of water on the bedside table. A few people, often elderly, are sufficiently strong-willed to ignore their thirst for fear of increasing their polyuria. This leads to severe dehydration and may precipitate hospital admission.

Try quickcooking methods such as stirfrying meat that you have marinated using tiny amounts of olive or canola oil or

Be careful when you find cookies marked as sugar free or other desserts marketed specifically for people with diabetes. They may be sugar free, but more than 60 percent of their calories can come from fat. You will find saturated fat in all animal products such as butter, whole milk, half-and-half, and meat fat. The vegetable products high in saturated fats and trans fatty acids are palm oil, palm kernel oil, cocoa butter

Can Sugar Cause Diabetes

Many people have the mistaken idea that eating too much sugar causes diabetes. Since diabetes used to be called Sugar Disease and is so closely linked with the blood sugar called glucose, it is easy to see the reason for this mistake. But evidence shows that simply eating lots of sugar does not cause diabetes. According to family practitioner John Messmer, A much bigger problem is that people are substituting refined sugar for fresh food and consuming sugary foods rather than whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Whole grain bread is better than donuts, whole grain cereal is better than sugary kids' cereals, and fresh fruit is better than syrup laden canned fruit. The idea that someone can develop diabetes simply by eating too many sugary foods is a common misconception. The idea that someone can develop diabetes simply by eating too many sugary foods is a common misconception. Some people are not able to control their diabetes, or they do not realize the terrible consequences of not...

Blood Sugar and Insulin The Basics

You need to know a little about normal metabolism to understand how so many of us are developing prediabetes and then diabetes. Metabolism represents the body's processes that direct energy into storage, such as in fat, or into fueling normal growth, development, and physical activity. Carbohydrates (including complex starches and simple sugars), fat, and protein are the three nutrient groups in our diet that provide the energy and building blocks for metabolism and growth. Carbohydrates and fat provide most of the energy to keep our body's machinery working, including our muscles for locomotion and our vital organs such as brain, liver, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Food is broken into its building blocks, simple sugars from carbohydrates, fatty acids from fat, and amino acids from proteins, and then absorbed into the blood from the small intestine (1). The breakdown of the food groups is aided by chemicals secreted by the pancreas (2). The pancreas also releases insulin, which helps...

Oral Medications for Type II Diabetes

This kind of pill has been available in the United States for several years, and there is currently only one brand available. It is called Glucophage. This is the kind of pill that works by keeping the liver from making too much sugar. (Remember that the sugar in the blood comes not just from what you eat, but also from your liver See Chapter 1 for more information.)

Prospective observational epidemiological studies

In the only prospective dietary study reported among Pima Indians141, 187 women aged 25-44 were followed from 1968 to an unspecified time prior to 1984 87 developed diabetes. The only nutrient significantly predicting diabetes was higher total carbohydrate and starch intake. However, in each tertile of higher total energy and total fat intake there was a higher incidence (although this was not statistically significant). No multivariate analyses were performed. There was no relationship with tertiles of sugar intake. This small sample of young women may have lacked the power to identify major nutrients and represents only a limited exploration of nutrition in the population with the world's highest diabetes risk.

Which Diet Is Best For Improving Insulin Sensitivity

Indirect evidence suggests that the fibre content and GI of the diet may influence insulin sensitivity, weight gain and the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. In the CARDIA study of young adults, low fibre consumption predicted 10-year weight gain and fasting insulin levels (a measure of insulin resistance) more strongly than did total or saturated fat consumption (54). Fibre but not amount and type of fat was associated with 2-h insulin levels. Two other large-scale prospective studies in healthy subjects showed that diets based on low-fibre, high-GI foods doubled the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, after controlling for known risk factors such as age and body mass index (55,56). Importantly, the total carbohydrate and refined sugar content of the diet, and the amount and type of fat consumed, were not found to be independent risk factors in these studies.

The Optimal Mix Of Dietary Carbohydrate And Fat For

British advice on the diabetic diet in pregnancy does not recommend limiting carbohydrate to 40 of the total energy and indeed suggests this figure should be nearer 55 , with the majority of carbohydrate having a low glycaemic index (75). Low glycaemic index diets can in fact increase insulin sensitivity in both pregnant and non-pregnant individuals (42-44,76). In pregnancy glycaemic control deteriorates when refined carbohydrate contributes more than 45 of the total energy (72). By contrast when refined carbohydrates are exchanged for low glycaemic index carbohydrates, 60 of the total dietary energy can be consumed in this form without any change in glucose tolerance (42-44). As the glycaemic response to rapidly absorbed refined sugars is greatest in the early morning, advice on suitable commercial breakfast cereals should be given (77).

Nonnutritive Sweeteners

Intense or non-nutritive sweeteners are sugar-free and calorie-free. Permitted sweeteners in the UK and Europe include aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame potassium, cyclamate, sucralose and alitame. These substances are very often used in combination as table-top sweeteners or in food products in order to produce a better flavour synergy or heat stability. There has been ongoing public debate about the safety of these substances, but there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that particular health problems are implicated by their use. In the UK the government Food Standards Agency (FSA) (formerly the

Dietary Treatment For Type Diabetes Mellitus

The total fat intake should not exceed 30 of total energy intake, and 10 should come from saturated fats. Dietary cholesterol intake should be less than 300mg day. Intake of trans unsaturated fatty acids should be kept to a minimum. Carbohydrates, predominantly complex carbohydrates, should comprise 50 of the total energy intake. Foods containing carbohydrate from whole grains, fruits and vegetables should be included in the diet. The total amount of carbohydrate in meals or snacks is more important than the source, type or glycemic index of the carbohydrate. Non-nutritive sweeteners are safe when consumed within acceptable daily limits. Consumption of simple sugars, e.g. sucrose, is acceptable in moderate amounts, as they do not cause acute hyperglycemia

Eating Disorders And Depression Screening And Treatment

Both antidepressant medication and some modalities of psychotherapy have proven useful in decreasing or eradicating binge eating and purging symptoms, in studies conducted in nondiabetic populations. There have been several positive randomized controlled trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (127). Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a time-limited psychotherapy, usually 16-20 1-hour sessions, which is intended to help the individual to better understand the links between distorted thought patterns, negative emotions, and maladaptive behavioral patterns. Through this intervention, patients learn and practice ways of challenging negative thoughts and altering their environment and behavior in order to stop engaging in eating disorder behavior. There is a strong focus in this intervention on normalizing eating patterns. This includes eating in a planned way and at regular intervals during the day, as well as incorporating a broad variety of...

Diabetes and Insulin Resistance

The majority of data for animal studies thus far suggest that adiponectin acts as an insulin-sensitizing hormone. Adiponectin-knockout mice develop insulin resistance either independently of diet or only after high-fat and high-sucrose diet, and treating these mice with adiponectin ameliorates their insulin resistance (35,42). The insulin resistance in adiponectin-deficient lipoatrophic and obese mice can partially be reversed via adiponectin administration and fully restored with both leptin and adiponectin supplementation (29). Furthermore, in a longitudinal study analyzing the progression of type 2 diabetes in obese monkeys, decrease in adiponectin closely parallels the observed reduction in insulin sensitivity, and the obese monkeys with greater plasma levels of adiponectin had less severe insulin resistance (43). Although not entirely known, the cellular and molecular mechanisms linking adiponectin to improved insulin sensitivity are also likely multifactorial. In rodents,...

Pathophysiology of Adipose Tissues Obesity and Insulin Resistance

Lipid storage in adipose tissue represents excess energy consumption relative to energy expenditure, which in its pathological form has been coined 'obesity'. In recent years, overnutrition has reached epidemic proportions in developed as well as developing countries. This reflects recent lifestyle changes, however there is also a strong genetic component as well. While the biochemical mechanism(s) for this genetic predisposition are still under investigation, the genes that control appetite and regulate energy homeostasis are now better known. For example, adipocytes produce leptin (see above) that suppresses appetite and was initially considered a promising target for drug therapy. However, most overweight individuals overproduce leptin, and no more than 2-4 of the overweight population has defects in the leptin appetite

Glucose Transporters as Components of the Glucose Sensing Machinery

The glucose transporter involved in the neuronal glucose-sensing unit is still not known. Possible candidates are the high-affinity glucose transporter isoforms GLUT3 and GLUT8 because of their distinct expression in neurons of the hypothalamus, but also the low-affinity transporter GLUT2 43 . Recently, a member of the SGLT family (SGLT3) was predicted to be a glucose sensor rather than a Na+ glucose cotrans-porter 44 . In cells expressing SGLT3, glucose caused a specific Na+-dependent depolarization of the membrane potential, whereas no sugar transport could be

Adipose Tissue and Cytokines

Since then, many studies revealed that dietary patterns that accelerate insulin resistance or secretion, including high consumption of sucrose, various sources of starch, a high glycemic index and high saturated fatty acid intake, are associated with a higher risk of colon cancer 32, 33 . Bray 24 also found that the predominant cancers associated with obesity have a hormonal base and include breast, prostate, endometrium, colon and gallbladder cancers.

Sample Meal Plans for and Calories

2 slices whole grain toast or 1 English muffin or 2-ounce bagel 2 teaspoons sugar-free jam 2 waffles or cup low-fat granola or 2 slices toast 2 teaspoons sugar-free jam or jelly or 2 tablespoons sugar-free syrup 1 cup nonfat yogurt V cup mixed fruit or 1 smal fruit or cup fruit juice 2 teaspoons sugar-free jam or jelly 3 ounces lean protein (chicken, ham, turkey, tuna, or 1 tablespoon peanut butter and 2 teaspoons sugar-free jelly) 2 slices whole grain toast or 1 English muffin or 2-ounce bagel 2 teaspoons sugar-free jam 2 waffles or Vi cup low-fat granola or 2 slices toast 2 teaspoons sugar-free jam or jelly or 2 tablespoons sugar-free syrup 1 cup nonfat yogurt V' cup mixed fruit or 1 smal fruit or 1 j cup fruit juice 2 teaspoons sugar-free jam or jelly 3 ounces lean protein (chicken, ham, turkey, tuna, or 1 tablespoon peanut butter and 2 teaspoons sugar-free jelly) 2 slices whole grain toast or 1 English muffin or 2-ounce bagel 2 teaspoons low-fat margarine or 2 teaspoons sugar-free...

Carbohydrate and Type Diabetes

People with diabetes should be encouraged to choose a variety of fiber-containing foods. It has been shown that increased fiber intake results in benefits for glycemic control, hyperinsulinemia and serum lipids (49-51). Dietary fiber intake should ideally be more than 40 g day, about half of which should be soluble, however, beneficial effects are also obtained with lower, and for some, more acceptable amounts (8). The available evidence from controlled clinical studies demonstrates that moderate intake of dietary sucrose in diets with Sucrose and other free sugars 10 total energy an appreciable amount of fiber with the sucrose displacing other fiber-depleted carbohydrate-containing food does not worsen glycemic control in persons with diabetes (52-54). Thus, sucrose and other added sugars may be included in moderation in the diets of people with type 2 diabetes, however, the bulk of dietary carbohydrate should be derived from foods with a low-glycemic index and or rich in fiber. It...

Diabetic Health Cookies

Add skim milk powder. Mix well. Add extracts and sugar substitute. Drop cookies by spoonfuls onto cookie sheet. Bake at 275 degrees for 45 minutes. Remove from cookie sheet and dust with cinnamon. Yields 2 to 2 1 2 dozen. One cookie equals 32 calories.

Which medicines are used in the treatment of diabetic dyslipidaemia

Of dyslipidaemia in a diabetic patient, as was mentioned before, is for the level of LDL-C to be 100 mg dl (2.59 mmol L). Usually, however, Type 2 diabetic patients do not have high concentrations of total and LDL-C, but manifest high levels of triglycerides with low levels of HDL-C, precisely as with the patient in our case. The problem is also that these patients have 'small and dense' LDL molecules (type B dyslipidaemia), which renders them more atherogonic. In this particular case, the therapeutic management of such high levels of triglycerides and of low HDL-cholesterol has priority. It is obvious from the very high fasting triglycerides levels that the serum VLDL lipoproteins are significantly elevated, which will inevitably also cause an increase of cholesterol that is contained in this VLDL molecule. The reduction of triglycerides is very likely to have a beneficial effect on the cholesterol level as well. It should also be emphasized that the nutritional treatment of...

Diabetic Date Bars

Altered for low salt, no sugar, low cholesterol diet. 1 2 c. dry bread crumbs 1 4 c. dried milk 1 2 c. water 1 4 c. chopped green pepper 1 med. onion, chopped 2 egg whites 1 4 c. low sodium catsup 2 tsp. prepared horseradish 1 tsp. prepared mustard Combine ingredients mix well. Pack in 9 x5 loaf pan or 2 small pans. Spread with Topping --TOPPING-- 3 tbsp. brown Sugar Twin 1 4 c. light low sodium catsup 1 4 tsp. nutmeg 1 tsp. dry mustard 1 4 c. brown Sugar Twin Heat margarine in large skillet until melted. Add green pepper, carrots and onion. Cook and stir 5 minutes. Add catsup, pineapple juice, vinegar, soy sauce, Sugar Twin, garlic powder, pepper and ginger. Cook, stirring, until it boils. Add pineapple chunks. Arrange skinned chicken parts (about 3 lbs.) in 9 x13 pan. Pour sauce over all. Cover tightly with foil. Bake 45 minutes in 400 degree oven. Uncover and bake 30 minutes or until done. Serve with rice. Good recipe for those on a no salt, no sugar, low cholesterol diet.

Diabetic Chocolate Chip Cookies

1 3 c. brown Sugar Twin Cream butter, brown sugar twin, vanilla and egg together. Sift all dry ingredients together in a separate bowl. Add milk, dry ingredients and chocolate chips to creamed mixture. Drop onto cookie sheet. Bake at 325-350 degrees for 7- 10 min. or until lightly brown.

Glycemic response to foods

GL takes into account the GI and the carbohydrate content of the amount of food eaten. The use of the GI and GL may be of some benefit for glycemic control but can be a cumbersome approach to use. Simplifying things by evaluating food records and identifying an individual's response to favorite carbohydrate foods may be more beneficial. Individuals may do best with simple guideline instructions like limiting high glycemic carbohydrate foods such as white bread, white rice, pastries, and sugar-sweetened foods. They should be encouraged to eat lower glycemic, less processed carbohydrates such as whole-wheat pasta and breads, brown rice, steel cut oats, dried beans, fresh fruits, soy products, and most vegetables.

Treating Hyperglycemia

Someone who is hyperglycemic must have an injection of quick-acting insulin and drink lots of sugar-free liquids. If the condition does not improve rapidly, the person must seek emergency medical help. Sometimes, people who do not yet know they have type 2 diabetes can develop hyperglycemia. They and people already diagnosed with type 2 who experience this condition can have it for a long time without realizing it. Their glucose level can zoom to extremely high levels, which can lead to coma and death.

Modification of dietary intake

Bariatric surgery results in a substantial reduction in nutrient intake which may account for the normalization of plasma glucose reported. In a recent study, a sham operated individual who followed the same strict postoperative diet recommended to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients showed similar improvements in insulin and glucose levels. This suggests that calorific restriction is a major factor in promoting glycaemic control after weight loss surgery (Pories et al., 1995). Furthermore, there are some indications that gastric bypass may alter the type of food patients ingest. Induction of the 'dumping syndrome' or postoperative changes in taste and food preference result in a preferential reduction in carbohydrate ingestion (Sugarman et al., 1992). This may enhance diabetic control because it is known that obese individuals with a high carbohydrate intake (especially simple sugars), have increased insulin secretion. Hyperinsulinaemia favours anabolic metabolism (Woods et al., 1974...

Dietary treatment of diabetes

Include detailed information on reducing portion sizes, reducing calorific intake by 600 kcal (or 20 per cent) daily, calorie calculations for specific and favourite foods, and steps to maximize the potential for a daily intake of at least five portions of fruit and vegetables, an increase in dietary protein and fibre, a reduction of fat intake to less than 10 per cent, and moderation of carbohydrate intake to 50 per cent of calorific intake. Although it may sound rather simplistic, asking the patient to complete a 'food diary' for 1 week can provide both the clinician and the patient with invaluable information. In the absence of a pre-printed diary form, a simple A4 piece of paper, marked off into days of the week will suffice. By the end of the week the patient will usually have begun to make some changes as they confront their previously unrecognized, or unacknowledged habits. Comments such as 'I never realized I ate so much between meals', or 'I wasn't aware that I used so much...

To eat healthily what are you aiming for

The Balance of Good Health (see Figure 2) shows the types and proportion of foods you need to eat to achieve a well-balanced and healthy diet. It is based on the five commonly accepted food groups. It shows that you do not have to give up the foods you most enjoy for the sake of your health. A healthy eating pattern includes the correct balance of foods from the four main food groups every day, plus an allowance for extras from the fats and fatty sugary foods group. All your nutritional needs will be met if you choose foods in these proportions. Remember, however, that everything you eat - snacks as well as meals - counts towards the balance of what you eat. The basic message is Reduce your intake of fats and fatty and sugary foods. Fats in the diet is the main problem as far as heart disease, high blood cholesterol and weight gain are concerned. They are of limited nutritional value and you can obtain a l the fat you need from the milk, dairy, meat and meat alternatives groups. Use...

Nutritional Considerations

According to food supply data, U.S. consumption of added sugars increased 23 from 1970 to 1996 (427). Nine specific foods and beverages accounted for 73 of all the added sugars in the American diet. Soft drinks, carbonated sodas, and fruit drinks provided 43 , while candy, cakes, ice cream, ready-to-eat cereal, sugar and honey, cookies and brownies, and syrups and toppings each accounted for 4 to 5 of the added sugars. As the intake of soft drinks, carbonated sodas, and fruit-flavored drinks has increased, the consumption of milk and pure fruit juice has decreased and the quality of nutrient-rich foods containing Vitamins A, C, D, riboflavin and folate, and the minerals calcium, magnesium and phosphorous diminished (428). Diets high in added sugar have been associated with several health problems, including obesity, bone loss and fractures, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and dental caries. However, no single factor, including added sugar consumption, can be linked to their...

The Anti Inflammation Syndrome Step Avoid or Strictly Limit Sugars

Refined sugars are the ultimate in empty calories. They provide carbohydrates and calories but no vitamins, minerals, or protein. And sugars appear on labels by a variety of names sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, dextrose, glucose, and other names, which reflect slightly different chemical structures or food sources. Even boxes of salt contain a little sugar, and many popular sugar substitutes (NutraSweet, Equal) contain some sugar in the form of maltodextrose. For an occasional sweetener, a small amount of honey might suffice it is far too sweet to consume excessively. Stevia, a noncaloric herbal sweetener available at health food stores, is three hundred times sweeter than sugar and is an excellent sugar substitute. Raw sugar is merely dirty white sugar it contains almost undetectable amounts of a few minerals (which can be better obtained in other, more nutritious foods). Soft drinks may be the worst single source of sugar and high-fructose corn syrup (a blend of two sugars,...

Getting a grip on general guidelines for parents

Be aware that neither you nor your child is to blame for the fact that he has diabetes. T1DM doesn't result from consuming too much sugar, failing to exercise sufficiently, or any other failure that you may imagine. (Turn to Chapter 2 to find out how T1DM actually develops.)

Stephanie A Amiel Introduction

The risks of intensified insulin therapy, the focus of this chapter, are those of insulin itself - intensified. Thus the major side-effects are weight gain (The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, 1988) and hypoglycaemia (The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, 1993 1995a 1997). Both of these problems may appear to be minimised with modern strategies for patient self-management, at least in published studies (Jorgens et al., 1993 DAFNE Study Group, 2002 Plank 2004 et al. Samann et al. 2005), yet they remain serious issues for large numbers of people. Weight gain, attributed primarily to the resolution of caloric loss in glycosuria (Carlson and Campbell, 2003), is theoretically responsive to dietary strategies, but insulin and peripheral insulin sensitizers do cause lipogenesis and fluid retention, both of which contribute to a rise in weight that may be unacceptable to patients. Evidence is accumulating about the potential effects of insulin...

Management Of Hypoglycaemia

The simplest treatment, when the patient recognises the early warning symptoms (see Chapter 2), is to eat carbohydrate, which must be palatable, concentrated and portable. Glucose tablets (Dextrosol) are usually recommended in the UK, barley sugar in the USA and, in France, lumps of sugar (sucrose). Beverages such as soft drinks or orange juice with a high glucose content are also suitable. The important factor is that short-acting carbohydrate should be followed by some form of longer-acting carbohydrate such as bread or biscuits.

Why were these medicines created

During the process of digestion, monosaccharides pass from the mucosal to the serosal surfaces of the small intestine and enter the mesentery venous and the portal system. Monosaccharides are the form with which the food carbohydrates can be absorbed. The absorption occurs mainly in the upper half of the small intestine. Monosaccharides result from the hydrolysis of the complex carbohydrates, which are mainly a-glucose-bound residues, and form di-, oligo- and poly-saccharides, like sucrose, dextrins and starch. The split occurs in the brush border of the intestinal lumen, in the presence of special enzymes, the glucosidases (maltase, isomaltase, glucoamylase, dextrinase, saccharase).

Carbohydrate And Plasma Lipids

The elevation of blood lipid concentrations in response to large amounts of dietary sugars, particularly fructose and sucrose, has been recognised for many years. There are also many other variables that can influence postprandial TG concentrations, such as obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, genetic background and renal failure. The literature contains conflicting findings, particularly in studies that contain 20 of energy from sucrose or 5 from fructose, where both sugars have been shown to raise TG concentrations. In studies containing amounts of sugars more typical of dietary habits in the Western world, elevated plasma TG concentrations are not usually observed (29). Interestingly, the glycaemic index of carbohydrate was significantly related to serum HDL-cholesterol in a retrospective cross-sectional study of 2200 middle-aged adults, where a low glycaemic diet was the only dietary variable related to the CHD risk factors measured (31).

The aGlucosidase Inhibitors

Miglitol has been shown to inhibit sucrase and a-amylase (responsible for the metabolism of sucrose and starch, respectively) in the lumen of the small intestine. a-Amy-lase facilitates the breakdown of starch into dextrins, maltotriose, and maltose whereas sucrase inhibits the breakdown of sucrose. Miglitol's inhibition of the enzymes delays subsequent carbohydrate degradation, attenuating postprandial plasma glucose elevation by delaying glucose uptake.

Nonnutritive or artificial sweeteners

These sweeteners contain no calories yet are much sweeter than sucrose by weight. Several of them have been very controversial as far as the possibility that they cause cancer. As a result, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed the concept of acceptable daily intake, or ADI. This is the maximum daily intake that's safe to consume each day over a lifetime. ADI is listed in the form that the sweetener usually appears or the food that it's usually added to. For example, saccharin's ADI is expressed in packets because it's used that way. i Aspartame It's 150 to 200 times sweeter than sucrose. Many people seem to prefer the taste of aspartame, which is sold under the brand name Equal. It has an ADI of 18 to 19 cans of diet soda. It's not useful for cooking. i Acesulfame This sweetener is 200 times sweeter than sucrose and doesn't leave an aftertaste. Sold under the brand names Sunett and Sweet One, it can be used in cooking and is found in numerous foods and beverages as...

Alphaglucosidase inhibitors

These are drugs that block the action of an enzyme in the intestine that breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars that can be absorbed. Taking alpha-glucosidase inhibitors results in a slowing of the rise in glucose after meals. The carbohydrates are eventually broken down by bacteria lower down in the intestine, producing a lot of gas, abdominal pain, and diarrhea the main drawbacks of these drugs.

Carbohydrate and Fiber

Many studies have examined the role of sucrose and sugars in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. A few have suggested a positive association, but the majority of studies have shown no association. Some have even suggested an inverse association between diabetes incidence and sucrose intake (11,14). Poor assessment of dietary intake, inability to disentangle dietary and other confounding factors, as well as overinterpretation of data derived from observational studies characterize many of these studies. Despite the lack of direct evidence for the role of sugars in the etiology of type 2 diabetes, it is conceivable that excessive sucrose intake might predispose to obesity, and thus sucrose indirectly may be a predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes. This has been suggested particularly in those who prefer to consume large amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages (22,23).

Chilled Multi Melon Summertime Soup

V4 cup firmly packed brown sugar Place honeydew in blender, and process until smooth pour into a bowl. Place cantaloupe in blender, and process until smooth pour into another bowl. To each bowl of pureed melon, add 2 tablespoons of the vodka, 2 tablespoons of the brown sugar, and 2 teaspoons of the lime juice stir well. Cover and chill. Place strawberries in blender process until smooth. Pour into a bowl cover and chill.

Refrigerator Bran Muffins

1 2 c. cold water 3 tbsp. sugar substitute 1 2 tsp. vanilla 2 tbsp. lemon juice 1 4 tsp. cream of tartar 1 1 2 c. cake flour 1 4 tsp. salt Beat egg yolks until thick and lemon colored. Combine water, sugar substitute, vanilla, and lemon juice. Add to egg yolks beat until thick and foamy add cream of tartar to beaten egg whites and continue beating until stiff peaks form. Fold carefully into yolk mixture. Combine sifted flour and salt. Sift a little at a time over the mixture, folding in gently. Pour into an ungreased 9 or 10 inch tube pan. Bake at 325 degrees for 1 hour and 15 minutes. One serving 1 bread exchange.

Can acarbose cause hypoglycaemia Are there other undesirable side effects

Acarbose, when administered as monotherapy, does not cause insulin secretion and consequently does not cause hypoglycaemia. When it is administered together with a sulfonylurea or insulin, the hypoglycaemia that can be caused by these substances is probably more severe and cannot be corrected with administration of sugar (sucrose), because, as a disaccharide, this cannot be absorbed in the presence of acarbose. Hypoglycaemia in individuals who use acarbose is managed by administering glucose and not sugar (which is a mixture of glucose and fructose).

Sex Differences In Energy Balance

Studies on macronutrient selection during the hormonal cycle are much less consistent, and it has been suggested that they may reflect general increases in appetite rather than specific intake of a particular macronutrient (13). Thus, the premenstrual phase can be considered as a time when women are especially vulnerable to overconsumption and food cravings.

What are the main sources of nutritional components of food and what is their caloric value

The main sources of nutritional components of food are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Carbohydrates are generally separated into simple (monosaccharides, disaccharides simple sugars ) and complex ones (polysaccharides, e.g., starch), based on the number of monosaccharide units in their chemical composition. The structural component of proteins is amino-acids. Fats constitute a heterogeneous group of substances with the main characteristic that they are insoluble in water. They are separated into simple fats (cholesterol, fatty acids) and complex ones (triglycerides glycerin with three molecules of fatty acids , cholesterol

Endogenous Advanced Glycoxidation End Products Formation

It is now appreciated that normal living is associated with spontaneous chemical transformation of amine-containing molecules by reducing sugars in a process described since 1912 as the Maillard reaction. This process occurs constantly within the body and at an accelerated rate in diabetes (5,6). Reducing sugars react in a nonenzymatic way with free amino groups of proteins, lipids, and guanyl nucleotides in DNA and form Schiff base adducts. These further rearrange to form Amadori products, which undergo rearrangement, dehydration, and condensation reactions leading to the formation of irreversible moieties called AGEs. Among all naturally occurring sugars, glucose exhibits the slowest glycation rate, although intracellular sugars such as fructose, threose, glucose-6-phosphate, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate form AGEs at a much faster rate (5,6,14).

Artificial Sweeteners

Used in moderation, table sugar (sucrose) can be a part of your diet. However, if you are having problems with glucose control or you are trying to limit your carbohydrate intake (for weight loss or lowering triglycerides), reducing the amount of sugar you eat may be important to you. If this is the case, you have the option of using sweeteners that do not raise blood glucose levels. Aspartame (NutraSweet) consists of two major amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, which combine to produce a sweetener 180 times as sweet as sucrose. A major limitation is that it is not heat stable, and so it cannot be used in cooking. Saccharin (Sweet 'N Low), sucra-lose (Splenda), and acesulfame potassium (Sweet One) are other sweeteners that can be used in cooking and baking.

Structure And Mode Of Action Of Agis

The concept of AGI was developed by Puls et al. (14), as a method of controlling the release of glucose from starch and sucrose the major carbohydrate components in western diet. Inhibition affects both degradation of complex carbohydrates and digestion of disaccharides. An appropriate agent (acarbose) of microbial origin (culture filtrates of actinoplanes) was first described in 1977 by Schmidt et al. (13), and this inhibitor was introduced onto the market in 1990. Three AGIs are now in therapeutic use worldwide (Fig. 1), and are frequently prescribed in Central and south Europe and Asia.

Environmental impacts on lifestyle

The world we live in has changed and this transition has occurred at a rate far greater than man is able to evolve and adapt. Our genetic makeup has been moulded by an environment in which food was scarce and the physical demands for survival were high (Peters et al., 2002). Today the decline in manual occupations, motorized transport and the rise in sedentary leisure pursuits such as television, computers and electronic toys have reduced our energy needs to a level below which innate appetite control systems are no longer able to precisely match energy intake to energy needs. A huge variety of highly palatable foods are more available to us than ever before, and we spend a smaller proportion of our disposable income on food than ever before. There has been a marked increase in the proportion of food consumed outside the home which contains a greater proportion of fat and is frequently more energy dense than household food. Consumption is encouraged through a variety of marketing...

Strawberry Fruit Squares

Add juice drained from pineapple with cold water. Enough cold water to equal 1 cup liquid. Add pineapple and banana. Pour 1 2 into 1 quart bowl. Chill until firm. Spread evenly with plain yogurt mixed with sugar substitute. Place bowl in freezer for 30 minutes until yogurt is firmer. Pour remaining gelatin, very carefully, on top. Chill until firm. Cut in squares.

Realizing the role of glucose

The body has three sources of energy protein, fat, and carbohydrates. I discuss the first two sources in greater detail in Chapter 8, but I'll tackle the third one now. Sugar is a carbohydrate. Many different kinds of sugars exist in nature, but glucose, the sugar that has the starring role in the body, provides a source of instant energy so that muscles can move and important chemical reactions can take place. Table sugar, or sucrose, is actually two different kinds of sugar glucose and fructose linked together. Fructose is the type of sugar found in fruits and vegetables. Because fructose is sweeter than glucose, sucrose, a combination of fructose and glucose, is sweeter than glucose alone as well. Therefore, your taste buds don't need as much sucrose or fructose to get the same sweet taste of glucose.

Diabetic Sponge Cake

Sweet 'n Low or any sugar substitute Separate eggs. Beat egg whites with salt until foamy. Add cream of tartar and continue beating until stiff. In another bowl, combine rest of ingredients and mix well. Fold in beaten egg whites. Bake in greased and floured bundt pan at 350 degrees for 40 minutes or longer test with toothpick. Serve with no sugar jelly (all fruit) and Cool Whip.

What About a Weight Loss Pill

Imagine how much easier it would be if instead of following a diet you could just take a pill every day that would reduce your appetite, increase your metabolism, and not put you at any risk. That isn't a complete daydream. In the past decade there has been an explosion in the scientific understanding of the molecules in our body that control appetite and metabolism. This new research may someday lead to the creation of a magic pill for weight loss. But it hasn't happened yet, and past experience is sobering.

Sugarfree Spice Cookies

1 2 tsp. granulated brown sugar replacement In a large bowl, cream margarine, fructose, and brown sugar replacement together until light and fluffy. Add flour, baking powder, cinnamon, and salt mix well. Stir in vanilla. Shape dough into 1-inch balls and place on ungreased cookie sheets. Flatten balls with a fork that has been dipped in cold water. Bake at 375 degrees for 8-10 minutes cool on wire racks.

Fruit Salad Topping

1 1 2 c. milk (skim or 1 ) 1 (3 oz.) sugar free vanilla pudding 1 2 c. brown sugar replacement On baking sheet toast bread at 325 degrees until dry. Cut toast into cubes. Combine toast cubes and fruits. Dissolve brown sugar and cinnamon in water. Add extracts. Pour over fruit mixture, turn with spatula until well coated. Let stand 5 minutes. Turn again, scraping down sides of bowl. Place mixture in one-quart size oven-proof casserole. Bake uncovered for 30 minutes. Serve warm with dusting of grated nutmeg. Makes 3 servings.

TIAs Strokes and Purpura

The spasming was probably caused by sorghum molds. Cooking during the manufacturing of sorghum syrup kills the mold but its toxic byproducts (mycotoxins) are still present. Other syrups may have sorghum added, polluting them. Brown sugar is also polluted with sorghum molds, but fortunately you can detoxify this mold with vitamin C as usual. Mix well tsp. powdered vitamin C with each new (1 lb.) box of brown sugar.

Peanut Butter Cookies

2 teaspoons liquid sugar substitute peanut butter, oleo (both at room temperature), sugar substitute. Set aside. Then sift flour, baking soda, and salt together. Add to creamed mixture, mix at medium speed until smooth. Drop by tablespoon onto cookie sheet lined with foil. Press down lightly with fingers dipped in cold water to form circles 2-inches wide. Bake at 375 degrees for 10 to 12 minutes or until lightly browned. Remove to wire rack. 2 cookies per serving. 140 calories, 13 grams cholesterol, 4 grams protein, 9 gram fat, 169 milligrams NA. 1 bread and 2 fat exchanges.

Spicy Oatmeal Cookies

Sweet 'n Low or any sugar substitute Separate eggs. Beat egg whites with salt until foamy. Add cream of tartar and continue beating until stiff. In another bowl, combine rest of ingredients and mix well. Fold in beaten egg whites. Bake in greased and floured bundt pan at 350 degrees for 40 minutes or longer test with toothpick. Serve with no sugar jelly (all fruit) and Cool Whip. 1 1 2 tsp. Sweet 'N Low brown sugar substitute

Chunky Peanut Butter Cookies

1 2 cup chunky peanut butter 1 3 cup oleo (both at room temperature 1 4 cup dark molasses 2 teaspoons liquid sugar substitute peanut butter, oleo (both at room temperature), sugar substitute. Set aside. Then sift flour, baking soda, and salt together. Add to creamed mixture, mix at medium speed until smooth. Drop by tablespoon onto cookie sheet lined with foil. Press down lightly with fingers dipped in cold water to form circles 2-inches wide. Bake at 375 degrees for 10 to 12 minutes or until lightly browned. Remove to wire rack.

Cherry Banana Dessert

2 c. cherry flavored sugar free beverage 1 envelope cherry flavored gelatin 1 sm. banana, peeled and sliced 2 tsp. sugar substitute 1 8 tsp. salt Melt butter. Combine cocoa, cornstarch and salt blend with melted butter until smooth. Add milk and sugar substitute and cook over moderate heat, stirring constantly until slightly thickened, remove from heat. Stir in vanilla. Set pan in ice water and stir until completely cold. (Sauce thickens as it cools.) One serving - (1 tablespoon) free exchange.

Diabetic Diet Cookies

6 tbsp. or 6 packs sugar substituted ( such as Sweet 'N Low) 1 tsp. vanilla 1 egg Sift flour, salt, soda, and spices. Beat margarine, sugar substitute, vanilla, and egg until blended. Mixture will be rough and crumbly due to the margarine. Add dry ingredients and applesauce. Mix well after each addition. Stir in cereal and raisins. Bake in 9 x 13 inch pan at 375 degrees for about 15 minutes. Cool and cut in blocks. Can be frozen. About 23 calories per cookies.

High Glycemic Load High Glycemic Index Foods

The foods you should avoid include Baked potato, French fries, refined cereal products, Sugar-sweetened beverages, Jelly beans, Candy bars, Couscous, Cranberry juice cocktail, many varieties of White rice, White flour, sugar, White flour pasta, White bread, and fruit juices. Diabetic diet foods need not be boring. A good diabetic diet plan that includes low glycemic index carbs can be tasty and interesting. There is a common misconception that a healthy diabetic diet is one that deprives you of all the goodies and treats. NOT SO Substituting high glycemic sugary foods with low glycemic load foods that use alternate sweeteners can be just as enjoyable without the nasty side effects. Understanding the glycemic index and glycemic load can be one of your best tools for controlling Type-2 diabetes.

T Tante Maries Muesli

You might be familiar with the commercially prepared boxed version of this healthy treat. The retail version is often packed with extra refined sugar that is not part of a diabetic diet. Tante Marie's Cooking School in San Francisco ( shows you how you can make your own that tastes better and is much more diabetic-friendly. i tablespooons brown sugar (not packed)

Valuing African American food

The use of less fat, less salt, and less sugar is essential, but other ingredients have to take their place. Quantities of food must be modified, and this may be the most difficult change, given the importance of food both as a symbol of wealth and for sharing. People must eat fewer cakes, pies, and cookies and find ways to creatively prepare fruit to take the place of sweet baked goods.

Treat Yeast or Fungus the Same

In thrush (yeast infection of the mouth) you must again outwit its growth by doing everything possible at one time. Eat no sugar, drink no fruit juice, stay off antibiotic. Avoid trauma like eating abrasive foods (crusts, popcorn, nuts, lozenges) or sucking on things. Floss teeth only once a day (using monofilament fish line), followed immediately by brushing with white iodine (or Lugol's, but this may temporarily stain). Hydrogen peroxide is not strong enough. Remember to sterilize your toothbrush with grain alcohol or iodine. You may also rinse your mouth with Lugol's (6 drops to H cup of water). Or apply 6 drops directly to the tongue and rub it in lightly with your lips.

Choosing to Replace Milk Chocolate

Dark chocolate has flavonols, which are antioxidants that may be protective against cancer, but milk chocolate does not have the same benefits because the proteins in the milk bind the flavonols so they are unavailable. Chocolate also has caffeine. Since cocoa, the basis for chocolate, is naturally bitter, high fructose corn syrup and refined sugar as well as fats are added to sweeten it.

Taking Advantage of Agave Nectar

Agave nectar is a delicious natural sweetener with a flavor similar to honey. It's derived from the same plant that gives us tequila. Compared to other sweeteners, it has a low glycemic index. It provides sweetness without the sugar rush (and subsequent crash) of refined sugars. Used in moderation, it can be part of a healthy diabetic diet.

Diabetes And Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates in the diet include monosaccharides and disaccharides, the starches and the indigestible carbohydrates, such as cellulose, pectins, gums, and psyllium. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends the following terms sugars, starch, and fiber, whereas terms such as simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and fast-acting carbohydrates should be avoided because they are not well-defined. Various factors can effect glycemic excursions with food intake, including the type of sugar (lactose, fructose, sucrose, or glucose), the type of cooking and food processing, the type of starch (amylose or amylopectin), the food components (lectins, tannins, or phytates), the levels of preprandial and postprandial glucoses, and the degree of insulin resistance (see Table 1). Sucrose and sucrose-containing foods do not need to be restricted and can be substituted for other carbohydrate sources. Isocaloric amounts of starch and sucrose have equal effects on glycemia, according to the...

Historical Perspectives On Carbohydrate

By the 1970s pharmaceutical treatments had expanded with the introduction of oral hypoglycaemic drugs and the average carbohydrate intake rose to about 40 energy. Prohibition of sucrose was now the main message. With extreme caution, several experimental studies compared higher carbohydrate diets ( 50 energy) with the traditional diabetes diet and found improved glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity (12-14). In the late 1970s, there was a revolution in thinking about diabetic diets and a spurt of experimental studies indicated that high-carbohydrate diets were no worse, if not better, for people with diabetes because they lowered blood cholesterol levels (see below). By then, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets were being recommended for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in the general population.

Large Shrimp with Creamy Blue Cheese

24 large fresh unpeeled shrimp (1 pound) 1 tablespoon dark brown sugar 3 tablespoons chopped onion 1V2 tablespoons cider vinegar 1 tablespoon water 1 tablespoon ketchup V2 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce 1 teaspoon hot sauce 1F8 teaspoon pepper 1 clove garlic, chopped V3 cup nonfat cottage cheese 1V2 tablespoons skim milk

Stocking Up with the Right Ingredients

Red and white cooking wines Reduced-calorie mayonnaise Reduced-sodium broths Reduced-sodium soy sauce Sugar-free cocoa mix Tomato paste Vinegars Extracts (vanilla, lemon, almond) Flour (all-purpose, whole-wheat) Rolled oats Semisweet chocolate Sugar-free gelatin Unflavored gelatin

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