Type 2 diabetes is a worldwide health crisis. In the U.S., 20.8 million are affected at a cost of $132 billion in 2002 (1), and the numbers will likely continue to increase. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates there are more than 40 million people in the U.S. with prediabetes. Given that the Diabetes Prevention Program showed an 11% yearly conversion rate of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to diabetes (2), there could be as many as 4 million new cases each year. Furthermore, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is rising around the world (3), with a recent prediction that the worldwide prevalence will increase from 2.8% in 2000 to 4.4% in 2030, resulting in 366 million affected people (4).

Much of the current crisis stems from our modern lifestyle. Furthermore, the global shift from an agrarian existence to city living, resulting in less physically demanding office and factory jobs, is taking its toll. In the U.S.,

From: Contemporary Endocrinology: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Evidence-Based Approach to Practical Management Edited by: M. N. Feinglos and M. A. Bethel © Humana Press, Totowa, NJ

Genetic predisposition + Environment

Acquired defects

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