(TRL and remnants)

Skeletal muscle

I TG stores, I FA oxidation I Glucose uptake and utilization

Fig. 3. Detrimental effects of chronic positive net energy balance. Overloading of adipose tissue beyond its storage capacity (energy intake exceeding energy expenditure) leads to lipid deposition in other tissues (skeletal muscle, pancreas, liver) via increased FFA flux and impaired FA oxidation. In turn, FFAs lead to altered insulin response/signaling, as illustrated for each of the major organs involved in energy homeostasis. Abbreviations are: FFA = free (nonesterified) fatty acid, FA = fatty acid, HGP = hepatic glucose production, LPL = lipoprotein lipase, TG = triglyceride, VLDL = very low density lipoprotein, TRL = triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (see Color Plate 4, following p. 34).

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