And Type Diabetes

Elevated Plasma FFA as Markers of Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease.

Although studies with small numbers of subjects often fail to show a significant elevation of plasma FFA concentration in those with insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes, fasting plasma FFAs have generally been found to be elevated when examined in large, well-characterized populations of individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (22,23). Postprandial FFA levels may also be higher in obese, insulin resistant individuals (24) and in individuals with type 2 diabetes (25,26). Prospective epidemiologic studies have suggested that elevated plasma FFA is an independent predictor of progression to type 2 diabetes in Caucasians and Pima Indians (27-30). This was confirmed in a large cohort of African-American and Caucasian men and women

(23). Although some studies did not find an elevation of fasting plasma FFA in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes (31-33), other studies have shown that elevated fasting plasma FFA correlated with low insulin-mediated glucose disposal in these individuals (34-36). Elevated FFAs have also been associated with an increased risk of myocardial ischemia (37), and they induce impaired large artery endothelial (38) as well as microvascular function (39). FFAs have also been correlated to carotid intima-media thickness (40).

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