Morbidity

Obesity in childhood is a major public health problem as it increases the risks of developing a number of health conditions and diseases (Table 1). These comorbidities have been associated with the increased mortality rates attributed to obesity. The number of deaths associated with obesity in the United States has been reported to be as high as over 430,000 per annum, a number that exceeds that attributed to smoking (20), though others reported a lower death rate, 112,000 of...

Gip

Abbreviations CCK, cholecystokinin a-MSH, a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone POMC, proopiomelanocortin GABA, gamma-amino butyric acid GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1 GIP, glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide. Abbreviations CCK, cholecystokinin a-MSH, a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone POMC, proopiomelanocortin GABA, gamma-amino butyric acid GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1 GIP, glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide. gastrointestinal tract (Fig. 3) (262,263). The neuronal systems that regulate...

Prevalence

Obesity is one of the most complex and poorly understood clinical syndromes affecting children and adults throughout the world. In the last decade the estimated number of adults with excess weight has increased dramatically, from 200 million to 300 million affected individuals (1). The current prevalence of this disorder ranges from 5 to 10 of the population in some African and Asian countries to over 75 in urban Samoa (2). Since 1980 obesity rates have risen threefold or more in some areas of...

Volume

SECTION I GROWTH AND GROWTH DISORDERS Adda Grimberg and Fima Lifshitz Introduction 1 Significance of Worrisome Growth 2 Diagnosis of Short Stature 4 The Differential Diagnoses of Worrisome Growth 10 Pathological Syndromic Short Stature 14 Intrauterine Growth Retardation 15 Nutritional Growth Retardation NGR 25 Laboratory Aids in Differentiating Short Stature 37 2. Idiopathic Short Stature 51 Amrit Bhangoo, Henry Anhalt, and Ron G. Rosenfeld Introduction 51 Historical Considerations The Birth of...

Medical Complications

The altered nutritional state in obesity results in several alterations that have been linked as comorbidities of the disease. Hyperinsulinemia is strongly linked with cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension 29 . Obesity is associated with hypertension in 10 to 30 of children 30 regardless of age, gender, and duration. Obese children and adolescents tend to have elevated levels of total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein,...

Contributors

Abdenur Division of Metabolism, PSF-Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, California, U.S.A. Ramin Alemzadeh Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. David B. Allen Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin Children's Hospital, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. Henry Anhalt Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey, and Department...

Dieting Body Image Problem

There is a culture of body image in our society, thus it is important to pay close attention to the behavioral and mental health concerns for children and adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatrics Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Primary Care DSM-PC distinguishes dieting body image behaviors that were, in the past, difficult to categorize as eating disorders. Children and adolescents may exhibit behaviors that do not meet full DSM-IV criteria, yet still deserve attention. The two...