Studies In Man Neurophysiological Changes

Evoked Potentials

In the brainstem, auditory evoked potential five waves can be distinguished. Wave I, III, and V are considered to reflect activity in the acoustic nerve, the pons, and the mid-brain, respectively. In both type 1 and type 2 patients diabetes the latency of wave I as well as the interpeak latencies I-III and III-V are prolonged (84,85). The latency of the P100 wave of the visual evoked potential, which is thought to be generated in the visual cortex, is increased both in type 1 and type 2 diabetes (86-88). P100 latencies correlate

Fig. 3. Deep white matter lesions (DWML) in type 2 diabetic patients (n = 115) and age and sex-matched nondiabetic controls. The severity of DWML was assessed semi-quantitatively using the "Scheltens scale" (116), a scale that takes both the number and the size of the lesions into account. Boxes represent quartiles and median scores. The DWML score is significantly (p < 0.01) higher in the diabetic patients. After adjustment for the presence of hypertension (HT; defined as a systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure >95 mmHg and/or self reported use of antihypertensive medication) the difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic group remains statistically significant. Data are derived from the Utrecht Diabetic Encephalopathy Study (54).

Fig. 3. Deep white matter lesions (DWML) in type 2 diabetic patients (n = 115) and age and sex-matched nondiabetic controls. The severity of DWML was assessed semi-quantitatively using the "Scheltens scale" (116), a scale that takes both the number and the size of the lesions into account. Boxes represent quartiles and median scores. The DWML score is significantly (p < 0.01) higher in the diabetic patients. After adjustment for the presence of hypertension (HT; defined as a systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure >95 mmHg and/or self reported use of antihypertensive medication) the difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic group remains statistically significant. Data are derived from the Utrecht Diabetic Encephalopathy Study (54).

positively with the duration of diabetes and HbA1 levels (86) and can be improved by intensive insulin treatment (87).

Studies on somatosensory evoked potentials in diabetic patients have provided more variable results. Increased latencies of the central components of the somatosensory evoked potential have been reported (89), although other studies have only found significant conduction delays in peripheral components of the somatosensory pathways (90,91).

Event-Related Potentials

The latency of the so-called P300 wave is also increased in type 1 as well as in type 2 diabetic patients (92,93). This P300 wave is a positive deflection in the human event-related potential that is considered to reflect the speed of neuronal events underlying information processing (94). It is most commonly elicited with an "oddball" paradigm in which a subject is instructed to detect an occasional target stimulus in a regular train of standard stimuli (94). The increased latency of the P300 wave in diabetes may thus be a neurophysiological manifestation of impairment of higher brain functions.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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