1. Writing Team for the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Research Group. Effect of intensive therapy on the microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2002;287:2563-2569.

2. Stratton I, Adler AI, Neil H, et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000;321:405-412.

3. Boulton A. Lowering the risk of neuropathy, foot ulcers and amputations. Diab Medicine 1998;15(Suppl 4):S57-S59.

4. Donaghue K. Autonomic neuropathy: diagnosis and impact on health in adolescents with diabetes. Horm Res 1998;50(Suppl 1):33-37.

5. Cameron NE, Eaton SE, Cotter MA, Tesfaye S. Vascular factors and metabolic interactions in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetologia 2001;44:1973-1988.

6. Davidson EP, Coppey LJ, Yorek MA. Activity and expression of the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) is altered by long-term diabetes in epineurial arterioles of the rat sciatic nerve. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2006;22:211-219.

7. Coppey LJ, Davidson EP, Rinehart TW, et al. ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist attenuates diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes 2006;55:341-348.

8. Obrosova I, Li F, Abatan O, et al. Role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 2004;53:711-720.

9. Cotter MA, Gibson TM, Cameron NE. Nuclear factor kappa B inhibition improves nerve function in diabetic rats. Diabetologia 2003;46:A70.

10. Pop-Busui R, Marinescu V, Van Huysen C, et al. Dissection of metabolic, vascular, and nerve conduction interrelationships in experimental diabetic neuropathy by cyclooxyge-nase inhibition and acetyl-L-carnitine administration. Diabetes 2002;51:2619-2628.

11. Sima AA, Sugimoto K. Experimental diabetic neuropathy: an update. Diabetologia 1999; 42:773-788.

12. Williamson JR, Chang K, Fringes M, et al. Hyperglycemia pseudohypoxia and diabetic complications. Diabetes 1993;42:801-813.

13. Kuruvilla R, Eichberg J. Depletion of phospholipid arachidonoyl-containing molecular species in a human Schwann cell line grown in elevated glucose and their restoration by an aldose reductase inhibitor. J Neurochem 1998;71:775-783.

14. Obrosova IG, Lyzogubov V, Marchand J, Bai F, Nadler JL, Drei VR. Role for 12/15-lipoxygenase in diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 2006;55(Suppl 1):A189 [Abstract].

15. Tomlinson DR, Fernyhough P, Diemel LT. Role of neurotrophins in diabetic neuropathy and treatment with nerve growth factors. Diabetes 1997;46(Suppl 2):S43-S49.

16. Calcutt NA, Campana WM, Eskeland NL, et al. Prosaposin gene expression and the efficacy of a prosaposin-derived peptide in preventing structural and functional disorders of peripheral nerve in diabetic rats. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1999;58:628-636.

17. Purves T, Middlemas A, Agthong S, et al. A role for mitogen-activated protein kinases in the etiology of diabetic neuropathy. FASEB J 2001;15:2508-2514.

18. Russell JW, Sullivan KA, Windebank AJ, Herrmann DN, Feldman EL. Neurons undergo apoptosis in animal and cell culture models of diabetes Neurobiol 1999;6:347-363.

19. Schmeichel AM, Schmelzer JD, Low PA. Oxidative injury and apoptosis of dorsal root ganglion neurons in chronic experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 2003;52:165-171.

20. Obrosova IG, Van Huysen C, Fathallah L, Cao X, Stevens MJ, Greene DA. Evaluation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist on diabetes-induced changes in peripheral nerve function, metabolism, and antioxidative defense. FASEB J 2000;14:1548-1558.

21. Hohman TC, Cotter MA, Cameron NE. ATP-sensitive K(+) channel effects on nerve function, Na(+), K(+) ATPase, and glutathione in diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2000; 397:335-341.

22. Cameron NE, Cotter MA. Effects of an extracellular metal chelator on neurovascular function in diabetic rats. Diabetologia 2001;44:621-628.

23. Coppey LJ, Gellett JS, Davidson EP, Dunlap JA, Lund DD, Yorek MA. Effect of antioxi-dant treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on endoneurial blood flow, motor nerve conduction velocity, and vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. Diabetes 2001;50:1927-1937.

24. Chidlow G, Schmidt KG, Wood JP, Melena J, Osborne NN. Alpha-lipoic acid protects the retina against ischemia-reperfusion. Neuropharmacology 2002;43:1015-1025.

25. Calcutt NA, Allendoerfer K, Mizisin AP, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of sonic hedgehog protein in experimental diabetic neuropathy. J Clin Invest 2003;111:507-514.

26. Li F, Szabo C, Pacher P, et al. Evaluation of orally active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor in streptozotocin-diabetic rat model of early peripheral neuropathy. Diabetologia 2004;47:710-717.

27. Li F, Drel VR, Szabo C, Stevens MJ, Obrosova IG. Low-dose poly(ADP-ribose) poly-merase inhibitor-containing combination therapies reverse early peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 2005;54:1514-1522.

28. Stevens MJ, Zhang W, Li F, Sima AA. C-peptide corrects endoneurial blood flow but not oxidative stress in type 1 BB/Wor rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004;287: E497-E505.

29. Oltman CL, Coppey LJ, Gellett JS, Davidson EP, Lund DD, Yorek MA. Progression of vascular and neural dysfunction in sciatic nerves of Zucker diabetic fatty and Zucker rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005;289:E113-E122.

30. Mantle D, Patel VB, Why HJ, et al. Effects of lisinopril and amlodipine on antioxidant status in experimental hypertension. Clin Chim Acta 2000;299:1-10.

31. Noda Y, Mori A, Packer L. Free radical scavenging properties of alacepril metabolites and lisinopril. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 1997;96:125-136.

32. Kuroki K, Takahashi HK, Iwagaki H, et al. Beta2-adrenergic receptor Stimulation-induced immunosuppressive effects possibly through down-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, ICAM-1, CD40 and CD14 on monocytes. J Int Med Res 2004;32:465-483.

33. Meliton AY, Munoz NM, Liu J, et al. Blockade of LTC4 synthesis caused by additive inhibition of gIV-PLA2 phosphorylation: effect of salmeterol and PDE4 inhibition in human eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:404-410.

34. Davare MA, Avdonin V, Hall DD, et al. A beta2 adrenergic receptor signaling complex assembled with the Ca2+ channel Cav1.2. Science 2001;293:98-101.

35. Zimmer HG, Ibel H, Suchner U. Beta-adrenergic agonists stimulate the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in the rat heart. Circ Res 1990;67:1525-1534.

36. Obrosova IG, Fathallah L, Lang HJ, Greene DA. Evaluation of a sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor on diabetic peripheral nerve metabolism: a prevention study. Diabetologia 1999; 42:1187-1194.

37. Cameron NE, Cotter MA, Basso M, Hohman TC. Comparison of the effects of inhibitors of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase on neurovascular function, nerve conduction and tissue polyol pathway metabolites in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetologia 1997;40:271-281.

38. Ng TF, Lee FK, Song ZT, et al. Effects of sorbitol dehydrogenase deficiency on nerve conduction in experimental diabetic mice. Diabetes 1998;47:961-966.

39. Schmidt RE, Dorsey DA, Beaudet LN, et al. A potent sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor exacerbates sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Exp Neurol 2005;192:407-419.

40. Oates PJ. Polyol pathway and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Int Rev Neurobiol 2002; 50:325-392.

41. Obrosova IG, Van Huysen C, Fathallah L, Cao XC, Greene DA, Stevens MJ. An aldose reductase inhibitor reverses early diabetes-induced changes in peripheral nerve function, metabolism, and antioxidative defense. FASEB J 2002;16:123-125.

42. Gupta S, Chough E, Daley J, et al. Hyperglycemia increases endothelial superoxide that impairs smooth muscle cell Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Am J Physiol 2002;282:C560-C566.

43. Remessy AB, Abou-Mohamed G, Caldwell RW, Caldwell RB. High glucose-induced tyro-sine nitration in endothelial cells: role of eNOS uncoupling and aldose reductase activation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44:3135-3143.

44. Obrosova IG, Minchenko AG, Vasupuram R, et al. Aldose reductase inhibitor fidarestat prevents retinal oxidative stress and vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetes 2003;52:864-871.

45. Obrosova IG, Pacher P, Szabo C, et al. Aldose reductase inhibition counteracts oxidative-nitrosative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in tissue sites for diabetes complications. Diabetes 2005;54:234-242.

46. Zatechka DS, Jr, Kador PF, Garcia-Castineiras S, Lou MF. Diabetes can alter the signal transduction pathways in the lens of rats. Diabetes 2003;52:1014-1022.

47. Price SA, Agthong S, Middlemas AB, Tomlinson DR. Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 mediates reduced nerve conduction velocity in experimental diabetic neuropathy: interactions with aldose reductase. Diabetes 2004;53:1851-1856.

48. Drel VR, Pacher P, Stevens MJ, Obrosova IG. Aldose reductase inhibition counteracts nitrosative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in diabetic rat kidney and high-glucose-exposed human mesangial cells. Free Radic Biol Med 2006;40:1454-1465.

49. Ha HC, Hester LD, Snyder SH. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 dependence of stress-induced transcription factors and associated gene expression in glia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:3270-3275.

50. Yang SH, Sharrocks AD, Whitmarsh AJ. Transcriptional regulation by the MAP kinase signaling cascades. Gene 2003;320:3-21.

51. Minchenko AG, Stevens MJ, White L, et al. Diabetes-induced overexpression of endothelin-1 and endothelin receptors in the rat renal cortex is mediated via poly(ADP-ribose) poly-merase activation. FASEB J 2003;17:1514-1516.

52. Ramana KV, Friedrich B, Srivastava S, Bhatnagar A, Srivastava SK. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB by hyperglycemia in vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated by aldose reductase. Diabetes 2004;53:2910-2920.

Yagihashi S, Yamagishi SI, Wada R, et al. Neuropathy in diabetic mice overexpressing human aldose reductase and effects of aldose reductase inhibitors. Brain 2001;124:2448-2458. Song Z, Fu DT, Chan YS, Leung S, Chung SS, Chung SK. Transgenic mice overexpressing aldose reductase in Schwann cells show more severe nerve conduction velocity deficit and oxidative stress under hyperglycemic stress. Mol Cell Neurosci 2003;23:638-647. Ho EC, Lam KS, Chen YS, et al. Aldose reductase-deficient mice are protected from delayed motor nerve conduction velocity, increased c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation, depletion of reduced glutathione, increased superoxide accumulation, and DNA damage. Diabetes 2006;55:1946-1953.

Coppey LJ, Gellett JS, Davidson EP, Dunlap JA, Yorek MA. Effect of treating streptozo-tocin-induced diabetic rats with sorbinil, myo-inositol or aminoguanidine on endoneurial blood flow, motor nerve conduction velocity and vascular function of epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. Int J Exp Diabetes Res 2002;3:21-36.

Calcutt NA, Freshwater JD, Mizisin AP. Prevention of sensory disorders in diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats by aldose reductase inhibition or treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor. Diabetologia 2004;47:718-724.

Drel VR, Mashtalir N, Ilnystska O, et al. The leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mouse: a new animal model of peripheral neuropathy of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Diabetes 2006;55:3335-3343.

Kato N, Mizuno K, Makino M, Suzuki T, Yagihashi S. Effects of 15-month aldose reductase inhibition with fidarestat on the experimental diabetic neuropathy in rats. Diab Res Clin Pract 2000;50:77-85.

Hotta N, Toyota T, Matsuoka K, et al. The SNK-860 Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group: Clinical efficacy of fidarestat, a novel aldose reductase inhibitor, for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1776-1782.

Greene DA, Arezzo JC, Brown MB. Effect of aldose reductase inhibition on nerve conduction and morphometry in diabetic neuropathy. Zenarestat Study Group. Neurology 1999;53:580-591.

Bril V, Buchanan RA. Aldose reductase inhibition by AS-3201 in sural nerve from patients with diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2369-2375. Thornalley PJ. Glycation in diabetic neuropathy: characteristics, consequences, causes, and therapeutic options. Int Rev Neurobiol 2002;50:37-57.

Dickinson PJ, Carrington AL, Frost GS, Boulton AJ. Neurovascular disease, antioxidants and glycation in diabetes. Diab Metab Res Rev 2002;18:260-272. Ahmed N. Advanced glycation endproducts—role in pathology of diabetic complications. Diab Res Clin Pract 2005;67:3-21.

Karachalias N, Babaei-Jadidi R, Ahmed N, Thornalley PJ. Accumulation of fructosyl-lysine and advanced glycation end products in the kidney, retina and peripheral nerve of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biochem Soc Trans 2003;31(Pt 6):1423-1425. Wada R, Yagihashi S. Role of advanced glycation end products and their receptors in development of diabetic neuropathy. Ann NY Acad Sci 2005;1043:598-604. Bierhaus A, Haslbeck KM, Humpert PM, et al. Loss of pain perception in diabetes is dependent on a receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily. J Clin Invest 2004;114:1741-1751. Cameron NE, Gibson TM, Nangle MR, Cotter MA. Inhibitors of advanced glycation end product formation and neurovascular dysfunction in experimental diabetes. Ann NY Acad Sci 2005;1043:784-792.

Wada R, Nishizawa Y, Yagihashi N, et al. Effects of OPB-9195, anti-glycation agent, on experimental diabetic neuropathy. Eur J Clin Invest 2001;31:513-520. Cameron NE, Nangle MR, Gibson TM, Cotter MA. Benfotiamine treatment improves vascular endothelium and nerve function in diabetic rats. Diabetes 2004;53:A35 [Abstract].

72. Fukunaga M, Miyata S, Liu BF, et al. Methylglyoxal induces apoptosis through activation of p38 MAPK in rat Schwann cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004;320:689-695.

73. Sekido H, Suzuki T, Jomori T, Takeuchi M, Yabe-Nishimura C, Yagihashi S. Reduced cell replication and induction of apoptosis by advanced glycation end products in rat Schwann cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004;320:241-248.

74. Amano S, Kaji Y, Oshika T, et al. Advanced glycation end products in human optic nerve head. Br J Ophthalmol 2001;85:52-55.

75. Misur I, Zarkovic K, Barada A, Batelja L, Milicevic Z, Turk Z. Advanced glycation end-products in peripheral nerve in type 2 diabetes with neuropathy. Acta Diabetol 2004; 41:158-166.

76. Haslbeck KM, Schleicher E, Bierhaus A, et al. The AGE/RAGE/NF-(kappa)B pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of polyneuropathy in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Exp Clin Endocrinol Diab 2005;113:288-291.

77. Meerwaldt R, Links TP, Graaff R, et al. Increased accumulation of skin advanced glyca-tion end-products precedes and correlates with clinical manifestation of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetologia 2005;48;1637-1644.

78. Garay-Sevilla ME, Regalado JC, Malacara JM, et al. Advanced glycosylation end products in skin, serum, saliva and urine and its association with complications of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Endocrinol Invest 2005;28:223-230.

79. Hwang JS, Shin CH, Yang SW. Clinical implications of N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine, advanced glycation end product, in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diab Obes Metab 2005;7:263-267.

80. Eichberg J. Protein kinase C changes in diabetes: is the concept relevant to neuropathy. Int Rev Neurobiol 2002;50:61-82.

81. Cameron NE, Cotter MA, Jack AM, Basso MD, Hohman TC. Protein kinase C effects on nerve function, perfusion, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity and glutathione content in diabetic rats. Diabetologia 1999;42:1120-1130.

82. Yamagishi S, Uehara K, Otsuki S, Yagihashi S. Differential influence of increased polyol pathway on protein kinase C expressions between endoneurial and epineurial tissues in diabetic mice. J Neurochem 2003;87:497-507.

83. Kim J, Rushovich EH, Thomas TP, Ueda T, Agranoff BW, Greene DA. Diminished specific activity of cytosolic protein kinase C in sciatic nerve of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and its correction by dietary myo-inositol. Diabetes 1991;40:1545-1554.

84. Kishi Y, Schmelzer JD, Yao JK, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid: effect on glucose uptake, sorbitol pathway, and energy metabolism in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 1999;48:2045-2051.

85. Uehara K, Yamagishi S, Otsuki S, Chin S, Yagihashi S. Effects of polyol pathway hyper-activity on protein kinase C activity, nociceptive peptide expression, and neuronal structure in dorsal root ganglia in diabetic mice. Diabetes 2004;53:3239-3247.

86. Jack AM, Cameron NE, Cotter MA. Effects of the diacylglycerol complexing agent, cre-mophor, on nerve-conduction velocity and perfusion in diabetic rats. J Diab Compl 1999;13:2-9.

87. Nakamura J, Kato K, Hamada Y, et al. A protein kinase C-beta-selective inhibitor ameliorates neural dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes 1999;48: 2090-2095.

88. Coppey LJ, Gellett JS, Davidson EP, Yorek MA. Preventing superoxide formation in epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve from diabetic rats restores endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Free Radic Res 2003;37:33-40.

89. Hong S, Wiley JW. Early painful diabetic neuropathy is associated with differential changes in the expression and function of vanilloid receptor 1. J Biol Chem 2005;7(280):618-627.

Sasase T, Yamada H, Sakoda K, et al. Novel protein kinase C-beta isoform selective inhibitor JTT-010 ameliorates both hyper- and hypoalgesia in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Diab Obes Metab 2005;7:586-594.

Stevens MJ, Obrosova I, Cao X, Van Huysen C, Greene DA. Effects of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on peripheral nerve conduction, blood flow, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 2000;49:1006-1105. Obrosova IG, Fathallah L, Stevens MJ. Taurine counteracts oxidative stress and nerve growth factor deficit in early experimental diabetic neuropathy. Exp Neurol 2001;172:211-219. Cheng C, Zochodne DW. Sensory neurons with activated caspase-3 survive long-term experimental diabetes. Diabetes 2003;52:2363-2371.

Obrosova IG, Mabley JG, Zsengeller Z, et al. Role for nitrosative stress in diabetic neuropathy: evidence from studies with a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst. FASEB J 2005;19: 401-403.

Hoeldtke RD, Bryner KD, McNeill DR, et al. Nitrosative stress, uric Acid, and peripheral nerve function in early type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2002;51:2817-2825. Cameron NE, Tuck Z, McCabe L, Cotter MA. Effect of the hydroxyl radical scavenger, dimethylthiourea, on peripheral nerve tissue perfusion, conduction velocity and nocicep-tion in experimental diabetes. Diabetologia 2001;44:1161-1169.

Coppey LJ, Gellett JS, Davidson EP, et al. Effect of M40403 treatment of diabetic rats on endoneurial blood flow, motor nerve conduction velocity and vascular function of epineur-ial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. Br J Pharmacol 2001;134:21-29. Hounsom L, Corder R, Patel J, Tomlinson DR. Oxidative stress participates in the breakdown of neuronal phenotype in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetologia 2001;44:424-428. Cameron NE, Jack AM, Cotter MA. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on vascular responses and nociception in diabetic rats. Free Radic Biol Med 2001;31:125-135. Pertovaara A, Wei H, Kalmari J, Ruotsalainen M. Pain behavior and response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons following experimental diabetic neuropathy in the rat: modulation by nitecapone, a COMT inhibitor with antioxidant properties. Exp Neurol 2001;167:425-434.

Nishikawa T, Edelstein D, Du XL, et al. Normalizing mitochondrial superoxide production blocks three pathways of hyperglycaemic damage. Nature 2000;404:787-790. Brownlee M. The pathobiology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanism. Diabetes 2005;54:1615-1625.

Meneshian A, Bulkley GB. The physiology of endothelial xanthine oxidase: from urate catabo-lism to reperfusion injury to inflammatory signal transduction. Microcirculation 2002;9:161-175. Cotter MA, Cameron NE. Effect of the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor,apocynin, on peripheral nerve perfusion and function in diabetic rats. Life Sci 2003;73:1813-1824. Cameron NE, Cotter MA. Effects of inhibition of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) on neurovascular function in diabetic rats. Diabetes 2002;51:A194 [Abstract]. Cacicedo JM, Benjachareowong S, Chou E, Ruderman NB, Ido Y. Palmitate-induced apop-tosis in cultured bovine retinal pericytes: roles of NAD(P)H oxidase, oxidant stress, and ceramide. Diabetes 2005;54:1838-1845.

Gorin Y, Kim NH, Feliers D, Bhandari B, Choudhury GG, Abboud HE. Angiotensin II activates Akt/protein kinase B by an arachidonic acid/redox-dependent pathway and independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. FASEB J 2001;15:1909-1920. Gorin Y, Ricono JM, Wagner B, et al. Angiotensin II-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation and protein synthesis are redox-dependent in glomerular mesangial cells. Biochem J 2004; 381(Pt 1):231-239.

Natarajan R, Nadler JL. Lipid inflammatory mediators in diabetic vascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004;24:1542-1548.

Agha AM, El-Khatib AS, Al-Zuhair H. Modulation of oxidant status by meloxicam in experimentally induced arthritis. Pharmacol Res 1999;40:385-392.

111. Ergul A, Johansen JS, Stromhaug C, et al. Vascular dysfunction of venous bypass conduits is mediated by reactive oxygen species in diabetes: role of endothelin-1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005;313:70-77.

112. Obrosova IG, Greene DA, Lang HJ. Antioxidative Defense in Diabetic Peripheral Nerve Effect of DL-a-lipoic acid, Aldose Reductase Inhibitor and Sorbitol Dehydrogenase Inhibitor, in Antioxidants in Diabetes Management (Packer L, Roesen P, Tritschler H, King G, Azzi A, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 2000, pp. 93-110.

113. Jagtap P, Szabo C. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and the therapeutic effects of its inhibitors. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2005;4:421-440.

114. Garcia Soriano F, Virag, L, Jagtap P, et al. Diabetic endothelial dysfunction: the role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation. Nature Med 2001;7:108-113.

115. Du X, Matsumura T, Edelstein D, et al. Inhibition of GAPDH activity by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activates three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage in endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 2003;112:1049-1057.

116. Empl M, Renaud S, Erne B, et al. TNF-alpha expression in painful and nonpainful neuropathies. Neurology 2001;56:1371-1377.

117. Svensson C, Marsala M, Westerlund A, et al. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal microglia is a critical link in inflammation-induced spinal pain processing. JNeurochem 2003;86:1534-1544.

118. Wallace M. Calcium and sodium channel antagonists for the treatment of pain. Clin J Pain 2000;16(Suppl 2):S80-S85.

119. Scott G, Kean R, Mikheeva T, et al. The therapeutic effects of PJ34 [N-(6-oxo-5, 6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide.HCl], a selective inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis are associated with immunomodulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004;310:1053-1061.

120. Veres B, Radnai B, Gallyas F, et al. Regulation of kinase cascades and transcription factors by a poly(ADP-ribose) inflammation in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004;310: 247-255.

121. Aarts M, Tymianski M. Molecular mechanisms underlying specificity of excitotoxic signaling in neurons. Cur Mol Med 2004;4:137-147.

122. Obrosova IG, Drel VR, Pacher P, et al. Oxidative-nitrosative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation in experimental diabetic neuropathy: the relation is revisited. Diabetes 2005;54:3435-3441.

123. Torres M, Forman HJ. Redox signaling and the MAP kinase pathways. Biofactors 2003; 17:287-296.

124. Almhanna K, Wilkins PL, Bavis JR, Harwalkar S, Berti-Mattera LN. Hyperglycemia triggers abnormal signaling and proliferative responses in Schwann cells. Neurochem Res 2002;27:1341-1347.

125. Fernyhough P, Gallagher A, Averill SA, et al. Aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation in sensory neurons of rats with diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 1999;48:881-889.

126. Agthong S, Tomlinson DR. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase corrects biochemical and neurological deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002;973:359-362.

127. Sweitzer SM, Medicherla S, Almirez R, et al. Antinociceptive action of a p38alpha MAPK inhibitor, SD-282, in a diabetic neuropathy model. Pain 2004;109:409-419.

128. Svensson CI, Marsala M, Westerlund A, et al. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal microglia is a critical link in inflammation-induced spinal pain processing. J Neurochem 2003;86:1534-1544.

129. Yang SH, Sharrocks AD, Whitmarsh AJ. Transcriptional regulation by the MAP kinase signaling cascades. Gene 2003;320:3-21.

130. Suzuki T, Sekido H, Kato N, Nakayama Y, Yabe-Nishimura C. Neurotrophin-3-induced production of nerve growth factor is suppressed in Schwann cells exposed to high glucose: involvement of the polyol pathway. J Neurochem 2004;91:1430-1438.

131. Kabe Y, Ando K, Hirao S, Yoshida M, Handa H. Redox regulation of NF-kappaB activation: distinct redox regulation between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Antioxid Redox Signal 2005;7:395-403.

132. Dyck PJ, Windebank AJ. Diabetic and nondiabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathies: new insights into pathophysiology and treatment. Muscle Nerve 2002;25:477-491.

133. Freshwater JD, Svensson CI, Malmberg AB, Calcutt NA. Elevated spinal cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin release during hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. Diabetes 2002;51: 2249-2255.

134. Pop-Busui R, Kellogg A, Li F, Larkin D, Stevens MJ. Effects of COX-2 gene inactivation on nerve conduction velocity and oxidative stress in experimental diabetes. Diabetes 2004; 53:A33 [Abstract].

135. Tardieu D, Jaeg JP, Deloly A, Corpet DE, Cadet J, Petit CR. The COX-2 inhibitor nimesulide suppresses superoxide and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and stimulates apoptosis in mucosa during early colonic inflammation in rats. Carcinogenesis 2000;21:973-976.

136. Natarajan R, Nadler JL. Lipoxygenases and lipid signaling in vascular cells in diabetes. Front Biosci 2003;8:783-795.

137. Reilly KB, Srinivasan S, Hatley ME, et al. 12/15-Lipoxygenase activity mediates inflammatory monocyte/endothelial interactions and atherosclerosis in vivo. J Biol Chem 2004; 279:9440-9450.

138. Hall KE, Liu J, Sima AA, Wiley JW. Impaired inhibitory G-protein function contributes to increased calcium currents in rats with diabetic neuropathy. J Neurophysiol 2001; 86:760-770.

139. Li F, Obrosova IG, Abatan O, et al. Taurine replacement attenuates hyperalgesia and abnormal calcium signaling in sensory neurons of STZ-D rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005;288:E29-E36.

140. Hall KE, Sima AA, Wiley JW. Voltage-dependent calcium currents are enhanced in dorsal root ganglion neurones from the Bio Bred/Worchester diabetic rat. J Physiol 1995; 486(Pt 2):313-322.

141. Yusaf SP, Goodman J, Gonzalez IM, et al. Streptozocin-induced neuropathy is associated with altered expression of voltage-gated calcium channel subunit mRNAs in rat dorsal root ganglion neurones. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001;289:402-406.

142. Natarajan R, Bai W, Rangarajan V, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor BB mediated regulation of 12-lipoxygenase in porcine aortic smooth muscle cells. J Cell Physiol 1996; 169:391-400.

143. Zhu H, Takahashi Y, Xu W, et al. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-mediated membrane translocation of 12/15-lipoxygenase is required for oxidation of low density lipoprotein by macrophages. J Biol Chem 2003;278:13,350-13,355.

144. Luo ZD, Calcutt NA, Higuera ES, et al. Injury type-specific calcium channel alpha 2 delta-1 subunit up-regulation in rat neuropathic pain models correlates with antiallodynic effects of gabapentin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002;303:1199-1205.

145. Richter RW, Portenoy R, Sharma U, Lamoreaux L, Bockbrader H, Knapp LE. Relief of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy with pregabalin: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Pain 2005;6:253-260.

146. Freynhagen R, Strojek K, Griesing T, Whalen E, Balkenohl M. Efficacy of pregabalin in neuropathic pain evaluated in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial of flexible- and fixed-dose regimens. Pain 2005;115:254-263.

147. Drel VR, Li F, Obrosova IG. Na+/H+ exchanger-1 inhibition counteracts multiple manifestations of early diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 2005;54:A214 [Abstract].

Quick Weight Loss Action

Quick Weight Loss Action

Why Indulge In Self-Pity When You Can Do Something About Your Weight Now. Say Goodbye to Your Weight Problems That Have Only Make Your Life Nothing But Miserable. Have you often felt short-changed because of your weight or physical appearance?

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment