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p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, see Mitogen-activated protein kinase P100, diabetes findings, 196, 197 P300, diabetes findings, 197 Painful neuropathy acute painful neuropathy poor glycemic control, 250 rapid glycemic control, 250, 251 animal models, 345, 346 brain changes acute pain responses, 340-342 chronic pain responses, 342, 344, 345 overview, 340 chronic sensorimotor neuropathy, 353, 354 clinical trial design, 356 focal and multifocal neuropathies, 352, 353 general symmetrical polyneuropathy, 353 overview, 249, 250 pain assessment, 354, 355 quality of life, 355 treatment acupuncture, 361, 362 aldose reductase inhibitors, 357 anticonvulsants, 359, 360 duloxetine, 360 glycemic control, 356, 357 a-lipoic acid, 357 mexiletine, 360 opioids, 360 phototherapy, 362

protein kinase C inhibitors, 357, 358 psychological support, 361 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 359 topical therapy, 360, 361 tricyclic antidepressants, 358, 359 Paroxetine, painful neuropathy management, 359 PARP, see Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase

Patched, hedgehog protein receptor, 94 PDGF, see Platelet-derived growth factor Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, peripheral arteries, 270 Peripheral vascular disease diabetes risks, 269, 270 diabetic foot impaired wound healing, 482, 483 macrocirculation, 479, 480 microcirculation, 480-482 Peroneal nerve, entrapment, 254 Phentolamine, erectile dysfunction management in diabetes, 466 Phototherapy, painful neuropathy management, 362 PKC, see Protein kinase C Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), foot ulcer management, 492 Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) apoptosis role, 114 diabetes activation, 42, 43, 58 DNA repair, 121

inhibitor studies of neuropathy protection, 59 knockout mouse, 58, 59 oxidative stress and diabetic neuropathy pathogenesis, 78-80 Polyol pathway, see Aldose reductase; Sorbitol dehydrogenase Ponalrestat, aldose reductase inhibition and clinical trials, 315 Pregabalin, painful neuropathy management, 359, 360

Programmed cell death, see Apoptosis Protein kinase C (PKC)

aldose reductase transgenic mouse and reduced activation, 53, 54 diabetes activation, 41, 76 diabetic neuropathy pathogenesis, 235 inhibitor therapy, 326, 327, 357, 358 knockout mouse, 52 Proximal motor neuropathy, clinical features,

251, 252 Punch biopsy, see Skin biopsy Pyridostigmine, orthostatic hypotension management, 421

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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