O

Octreotide, diarrhea management in diabetes, 444, 445

Opioids, painful neuropathy management, 360 Orthostatic hypotension blood pressure regulation, 414, 415 cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, 397 clinical manifestations, 416, 418 definition, 413, 414 laboratory evaluation, 418, 419 management early morning orthostatic hypotension, 423 erythropoietin, 423, 424 fludrocortisone, 421, 422 hospital management, 422, 423 midodrine, 420, 421 nocturnal hypertension, 423 orthostatic decompensation, 421, 422 patient education, 419, 420 postprandial orthostatic hypotension, 423 pyridostigmine, 421 pathophysiology in diabetes, 415, 416 symptom severity scale, 417 Oxidative stress apoptosis in diabetic neuropathy, 117, 118 cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, 402, 403

diabetic neuropathy pathogenesis, 42, 76-78,

234, 235 downstream effectors calcium flux, 82 cyclooxygenase-2, 81 lipoxygenase, 81, 82 mitogen-activated protein kinases, 80,

98-101 nuclear factor-KB, 80, 81 poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, 78-80 sodium/proton exchanger-1, 82, 83

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