Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain findings in diabetes, 194, 196 neuropathy diagnostics, 285 MAPK, see Mitogen-activated protein kinase Mcgill pain questionnaire (MPQ), pain assessment, 355 Megalin, sonic hedgehog receptor, 94 Mesenteric arterial function, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, 157 Metatropic glutamate receptors, neuroprotection, 123 Metoclopramide, gastroparesis management in diabetes, 441 Mexiletine, painful neuropathy management, 360 Microangiopathy acute nerve ischemia, 210-211

blood flow of nerve trunks and dorsal root ganglia, 208-210 diabetic animal model studies, 213, 215 interventions, 212, 213 nerve regeneration impairment, 215-218 overview, 207, 208

peripheral nervous system effects in diabetic humans, 218-220 prospects for study in diabetic neuropathy, 220-222 resistance to ischemic conduction failure, 215

Microvascular disease anatomic changes, 260, 266 diabetes association, 259, 260 evaluation, 266-268

pathophysiology in diabetes, 260, 261, 263-266 Midodrine, orthostatic hypotension management, 420, 421

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation diabetic neuropathy studies, 102, 103, 105 sensory neurones, 101, 102 apoptosis signaling, 122 extracellular signal-regulated kinases, 97 Jun N-terminal kinases, 98 oxidative stress and diabetic neuropathy pathogenesis, 80 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, 98 signaling cascade, 96, 97 stress response, 98-101 types, 96

MPQ, see Mcgill pain questionnaire MRI, see Magnetic resonance imaging Murcormycosis, diabetes association and clinical features, 375, 376

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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