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1. Symptoms (forms and questionnaires)—subjective.

2. Quality of life (questionnaire)—subjective.

3. Quantitative neurological examination focussing on distal sensorimotor function (sensation, strength, and reflexes)—semiobjective.

4. Neurophysiology (nerve conduction velocity, amplitudes, F-wave latencies; multiple nerves, both sensory and motor)—objective.

5. Quantitative sensory testing (vibration, thermal, pain, and NTSS-6)—semiobjective 6. Autonomic testing (microvascular, cardiac measures)—objective.

7. Morphology—(skin biopsy—nerve density and length, branching pattern)—objective.

8. Combinations (e.g., NIS-LL + 7 = objective neurological examination of the lower limbs + 4 measures of nerve electrophysiology + QAFT + QST).

1. Symptoms (forms and questionnaires)—subjective.

2. Quality of life (questionnaire)—subjective.

3. Quantitative neurological examination focussing on distal sensorimotor function (sensation, strength, and reflexes)—semiobjective.

4. Neurophysiology (nerve conduction velocity, amplitudes, F-wave latencies; multiple nerves, both sensory and motor)—objective.

5. Quantitative sensory testing (vibration, thermal, pain, and NTSS-6)—semiobjective 6. Autonomic testing (microvascular, cardiac measures)—objective.

7. Morphology—(skin biopsy—nerve density and length, branching pattern)—objective.

8. Combinations (e.g., NIS-LL + 7 = objective neurological examination of the lower limbs + 4 measures of nerve electrophysiology + QAFT + QST).

Unfortunately, subjective measures may not be sensitive enough to discern small changes in nerve fiber functions in a small test group during a short period of time. Unless a study includes a large number of subjects and a sufficient period of time significant changes may not be detectable, particularly in the short time periods that most efficacy trials are designed for. Thus, objective tests may be more useful for studies of shorter duration.

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