Fig. 7. The LDM or single-point laser doppler: it enables to quantify both the direct and indirect vasodilatory responses to a vasoactive substance. One probe (no. 1) is placed in direct contact to the iontophoresis solution chamber (colored ring) and sequentially measures the blood flow changes in response to the iontophorised solution (direct response). The center probe (no. 2) measures the indirect vasodilatory response which derives from the activation of the nerve axon reflex. Both responses are expressed as percentage of mean blood flow increase over the baseline blood flow.

blood flow assessment in prospective studies (39,40). Nevertheless, some factors, other than the accuracy of the device itself, might also potentially affect the LDPI readings, namely the scanner head height and inclination, tissue heating, prevalence of arm hair, and arm movement.

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