Multiple mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of PDN. New findings support the role for previously discovered mechanisms, such as increased AR activity, nonen-zymatic glycation, PKC activation, and oxidative stress in functional and morphological abnormalities in the diabetic nerve. Evidence for the important role for nitrosative stress, MAPK activation, PARP activation, COX-2 activation, and Ca2+ signaling is emerging. Several newly discovered mechanisms include activations of NF-kB, the 12/15-LO pathway, and NHE-1. Studies of the role for these mechanisms in PDN and their interactions with other pathogenetic factors are in progress.

Delicious Diabetic Recipes

Delicious Diabetic Recipes

This brilliant guide will teach you how to cook all those delicious recipes for people who have diabetes.

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