CAD, see Coronary artery disease Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)

spinal cord axon studies in diabetes, 173, 179 vasodilation, 209 Calcium flux, oxidative stress and diabetic neuropathy pathogenesis, 82 CAN, see Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy Capsaicin, painful neuropathy management, 360 Cardiac adrenergic innervation, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, 156, 157 Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) clinical implications anesthesia and surgery risks, 397 cardiac denervation syndrome, 397-401 exercise performance, 396, 397 orthostatic hypotension, 397 diagnosis cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests, 392-394

positron emission tomography, 390, 391 scintigraphy, 390, 394, 396 epidemiology, 390, 391 management, 402-404 natural history, 391, 392 overview, 389, 390 Carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetes association and clinical features, 253, 254, 375 Caspase, apoptosis role, 115 CCM, see Corneal confocal microscopy CGRP, see Calcitonin gene-related peptide Charcot neuroarthropathy clinical findings, 498 etiology, 497, 498 treatment, 498-501 Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP) clinical features, 252, 263 diabetes association, 22 CIDP, see Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy Cinitrapide, gastroparesis management in diabetes, 441 Cisapride, gastroparesis management in diabetes, 441 Citalopram, painful neuropathy management, 359 Clinical trial design confounding factors, 288 end points, 287, 288, 309, 310, 322, 323 painful neuropathy, 356 population selection, 287 study duration, 288 Clonidine, gastroparesis management in diabetes, 441, 442 CMAP, see Compound muscle action potential Cognition, see Diabetic encephalopathy Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), neuropathy diagnostics, 282 Constipation clinical findings and evaluation, 445, 446 management, 446

pathogenesis in diabetes, 445 Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM), neuropathy diagnostics, 285 Coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes risks,

268, 269 COX-2, see Cyclooxygenase-2 C-peptide, deficiency and diabetic neuropathy, 237 Cranial nerve palsy, diabetic neuropathy clinical manifestations, 368, 369 epidemiology, 368 historical background, 368 management, 376 overview, 253 pathology, 369 Cubitus interruptus, signaling, 94, 95 Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative stress and diabetic neuropathy pathogenesis, 81

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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