A

ACC, see Anterior cingulate cortex ACE inhibitors, see Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors Acupuncture, painful ne uropathy management, 361, 362 Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) diabetic neuropathy pathogenesis, 74-76, 233, 234

inhibitor studies of neuropathy protection,

56, 57, 75, 234, 325 receptor, see Receptor of advanced glycation end product AGEs, see Advanced glycation end products Aldose reductase diabetic neuropathy pathogenesis, 72-74 function, 34, 52, 53, 72 gene locus and structure, 36 haplotypes and gene expression, 40, 41 inhibitors alrestatin, 310, 312 clinical trials, 233, 309-311 fidarestat, 318

painful neuropathy management, 357 ponalrestat, 315 prospects for study, 319 sorbinil, 312-315 tolrestat, 315-318 zenarestat, 318 zopolrestat, 318 knockout mouse, 55 polyol pathway, 52, 53, 72 promoter polymorphisms A(+11842)C, 40 5'ALR2, 37-39 C(-106)T, 39, 40 summary of studies, 35, 36 transcriptional activation, 36, 37 transgenic mouse studies global expression, 53, 54 Schwann cell expression, 54 Alprostadil, erectile dysfunction management in diabetes, 467, 468 ALR2, see Aldose reductase

Alrestatin, aldose reductase inhibition and clinical trials, 310, 312 Aminoguanidine, diabetic neuropathy management, 325 AMPA receptors, spinal cord studies in diabetes, 179 Anesthesia, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy risks, 397

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)

inhibitors, neuropathy protection studies, 70 Anhidrosis distal small fiber neuropathy, 427 generalized anhidrosis, 428 multifocal sweating loss, 427, 428 Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), pain neurocircuitry, 341 Anticonvulsants, painful neuropathy management, 359, 360 Apligraf, foot ulcer management, 493 Apomorphine, erectile dysfunction management in diabetes, 462, 463 Apoptosis autonomic neurons, 123, 124

caspases, 115

cytosolic pathway, 117

dorsal root ganglia, 118, 119, 121-123

extrinsic pathway, 115

intrinsic pathway, 115-117

mitochondrial dysfunction, 114

necrosis comparison, 114

oxidative and nitrosative stress in diabetic neuropathy, 117, 118 Schwann cells, 124, 126 spinal cord neurons, 175 Arterial bypass grafting, peripheral arteries, 270 Autonomic neuropathy epidemiology, 18-20 neuron apoptosis, 123, 124 Axon reflex, neuropathy diagnostics, 284

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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