Regulation Of Blood Pressure

The maintenance of postural normotension without an excessive heart rate increment requires an adequate blood volume and the integration of reflex and humoral systems in several key vascular beds. These include striated muscle, splanchnic-mesenteric, and cerebrovascular beds. An adequate blood volume is essential. Hypovolemia regularly causes OH, even if vascular reflexes are intact. Hypovolemia can also be relative. Adrenergic den-ervation decreases vascular tone and increases vascular...

Diabetic Foot Ulceration

Diabetic Foot Ulcer Process Formation

The risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration can be categorized into three distinct groups pathophysiological, anatomic deformities, and environmental influences. The pathophysiological changes, which occur at the biomolecular level lead to changes that result in the development of peripheral sensory neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, and a compromised immune system with alteration in wound healing capabilities. The second group with anatomic deformities are largely the result of motor...