Proinflammatory Responses to Ultrafiltered Cytokines

Renal fibrogenesis may be compared with skin-wound healing. In this setting, inflammatory infiltrates are required for subsequent scarring and even large fetal wounds, which lack inflammation, heal without scars (44). Similarly, renal interstitial fibrogenesis is thought to require inflammatory cells (mainly macrophages), which express important cytokines in the interstitium. Although early DN is thought by some scholars to completely lack the interstitial accumulation of macrophages, quantitative histological analysis indicates increased numbers of renal interstitial macrophages (45). Experimental evidence suggests that ultrafiltered HGF and TGF-P are causative in inducing tubular basolateral chemokine secretion including MCP-1 and RANTES, which then regulate and activate interstitial macrophages (Fig. 4).

Tubular Secretion of MCP-1

Exposure of cultured tubular cells to glomerular ultrafiltrate from rats with DN raises the expression of MCP-1 (26). There are two observations suggesting a major contribution


Chemokine gradient (MCP-1, RANTES)
How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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